2 June 2012

Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak is sentenced to life imprisonment for his role in the killing of demonstrators during the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

Hosni Mubarak was an influential political figure who served as the President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.

Early Life and Military Career

Birth: Hosni Mubarak was born on May 4, 1928, in Kafr El-Meselha, Monufia Governorate, Egypt.
Military Education: He graduated from the Egyptian Military Academy in 1949 and the Egyptian Air Academy in 1950.
Air Force Career: Mubarak rose through the ranks of the Egyptian Air Force, eventually becoming the Commander of the Air Force in 1972.

Political Career

Vice President: Mubarak was appointed Vice President of Egypt by President Anwar Sadat in 1975.
Presidency: After the assassination of President Sadat in October 1981, Mubarak became President. He was subsequently re-elected through referendums in 1987, 1993, and 1999, and won the first multi-candidate presidential election in 2005.

Policies and Governance

Economic Policies: Mubarak’s economic policies were characterized by a mix of liberalization and state control. His tenure saw some economic growth, but also widespread corruption and inequality.
Foreign Relations: He maintained Egypt’s peace treaty with Israel and was a key ally of the United States in the region. His government played a role in various Middle East peace processes.
Domestic Policies: Mubarak’s rule was marked by a strong security apparatus, limited political freedoms, and human rights abuses. His regime was criticized for its authoritarian nature.

Downfall and Aftermath

2011 Revolution: Mubarak’s long rule came to an end during the Arab Spring in early 2011. Massive protests against his government led to his resignation on February 11, 2011.
Legal Issues: After his resignation, Mubarak faced numerous legal challenges, including charges of corruption and complicity in the deaths of protesters. In 2012, he was sentenced to life imprisonment, but his sentence was later overturned, and he was retried. He spent several years in detention but was eventually released in 2017.
Death: Hosni Mubarak passed away on February 25, 2020, at the age of 91.


Mubarak’s legacy is complex, with some viewing him as a stabilizing force in Egypt and a key player in maintaining regional peace, while others criticize his autocratic rule and the socio-economic issues that persisted under his administration.