27 February 1881

First Boer War: The Battle of Majuba Hill takes place.

The First Boer War, also known as the First Anglo-Boer War, took place from 1880 to 1881 in South Africa. It was fought between the British Empire and the Transvaal Republic (also known as the South African Republic), which was populated mainly by Boer settlers of Dutch descent.

Causes:

British Expansionism: The British were expanding their control over Southern Africa, and tensions arose as they encroached upon Boer territories.
Discontent among Boers: Boer settlers were dissatisfied with British rule and policies, such as taxation and attempts to limit their autonomy.
Conflicts over Land and Resources: There were disputes over land ownership and control of valuable resources like gold and diamonds.

Key Events:

Annexation of the Transvaal: In 1877, the British annexed the Transvaal, angering the Boers and sparking resistance.
Battle of Majuba Hill (1881): This was the decisive battle of the war. The Boers, led by Commandant-General Piet Joubert, achieved a surprising victory over the British forces commanded by Major-General Sir George Pomeroy Colley. The British suffered heavy casualties, and Colley himself was killed.
Peace Treaty: Following the Battle of Majuba Hill, negotiations led to the signing of the Pretoria Convention in 1881. Under the terms of the treaty, the British recognized the independence of the Transvaal, albeit with certain conditions.

Outcomes:

Independence of the Transvaal: The Transvaal regained its independence, albeit with British suzerainty.
Prelude to Further Conflict: While the First Boer War ended with a Boer victory, it didn’t resolve the underlying tensions between the British Empire and the Boer republics. This set the stage for the Second Boer War (1899-1902), which was much larger and more destructive.