30 May 1635

The Peace of Prague is signed.

The Peace of Prague was a peace treaty signed on 30 May 1635 by the Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand II and Elector John George I of Saxony representing most of the Protestant Estates of the Holy Roman Empire. It effectively brought to an end the civil war aspect of the Thirty Years’ War; however, the combat actions still carried on due to the continued intervention on German soil by Spain, Sweden, and, from mid-1635, France, until the Peace of Westphalia was concluded in 1648.

Negotiations towards the agreement between the Emperor and the Saxon elector had been instigated by Landgrave George II of Hesse-Darmstadt, who whilst being a Lutheran prince had remained neutral during the Swedish intervention in 1630. Likewise, Elector John George I had initially supported Ferdinand II against the revolting Bohemian estates and maintained a neutral position throughout the following years. However, after continued plundering of the Saxon lands by the troops of the Catholic League, he had joined the Swedish forces of King Gustav Adolph at the 1631 Battle of Breitenfeld. The king’s death at the Battle of Lützen in 1632 and the Protestant defeat at the 1634 Battle of Nördlingen prompted the elector to again switch sides.
Emperor Ferdinand II, c.?1635
The Emperor had seen achieved successes ruined by the Swedish invasion and found himself constrained to transfer extraordinary powers to his Generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein. After years of fighting, an inability to reimpose the Catholic confession by force, Wallenstein’s assassination, and the need to put an end to the intervention of foreign powers in German affairs all combined to bring Ferdinand II to the table with a degree of willingness to make concessions towards the Lutheran estates.