22 March 1945

The Arab League is founded when a charter is adopted in Cairo, Egypt.

The Arab League is a regional organization of Arab countries, founded in Cairo, Egypt in 1945. The League’s purpose is to promote economic, cultural, and political cooperation among its member states, and to coordinate their policies in a variety of fields, including trade, education, and defense. The League also aims to safeguard the independence and sovereignty of its member states, and to promote peace and stability in the region. The League’s headquarters is located in Cairo, Egypt, and its current members include 22 countries in the Middle East and North Africa region.

21 March 1918

World War I: The first phase of the German Spring Offensive, Operation Michael, begins.

Operation Michael, also known as the Spring Offensive, was a major German military campaign during World War I that took place from March to July 1918. It was the last attempt by the German army to achieve a decisive victory on the Western Front before the arrival of American troops and marked the high point of Germany’s military power during the war.

The operation began on March 21, 1918, with a massive artillery bombardment of the Allied lines. This was followed by an assault by three German armies, which succeeded in breaking through the Allied front and advancing towards the English Channel. However, the German advance was ultimately halted due to supply problems, the exhaustion of the troops, and the arrival of reinforcements from the Allied powers.

Despite early successes, Operation Michael was ultimately a failure for Germany, as it did not achieve its strategic objectives and resulted in heavy casualties on both sides. The operation marked the beginning of a series of offensives and counteroffensives that ultimately led to Germany’s defeat in the war.

20 March 1852

Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin is a novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe and first published in 1852. It is a groundbreaking work of fiction that played a significant role in the abolitionist movement and is considered one of the most influential books in American history.

The novel tells the story of Uncle Tom, a slave who is sold away from his family and transported from Kentucky to Louisiana. It also follows the stories of several other slaves, including Eliza, who escapes with her young son across the frozen Ohio River, and Tom’s fellow slave, George Harris, who also escapes to Canada with his family.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin vividly portrays the brutality of slavery and the dehumanizing effects it had on both slaves and slave owners. The novel exposes the inhumanity of the institution of slavery and the many ways it corrupted the souls of those who participated in it.

The book was an instant success, selling over 300,000 copies in its first year and going on to become the best-selling novel of the 19th century. It was widely read in the North and helped to fuel the growing abolitionist movement, while also serving as a rallying cry for opponents of slavery in the South.

However, the book also sparked controversy and outrage among pro-slavery advocates, who saw it as a direct attack on their way of life. They criticized Stowe for what they saw as an unfair portrayal of the South and the institution of slavery.

Despite the controversy, Uncle Tom’s Cabin remains an important work of American literature that helped to shape public opinion on one of the most divisive issues of its time. Its impact can still be felt today, and it continues to be studied and celebrated for its powerful message of justice and humanity.

19 March 1861

The First Taranaki War ends in New Zealand.

The First Taranaki War was a conflict fought between the M?ori people of the Taranaki region in New Zealand and the British colonial government in the early 1860s. The war began in March 1860 and lasted until March 1861.

The immediate cause of the war was a dispute over the sale of land in Waitara, a small town in Taranaki. The M?ori chief, Wiremu Kingi Te Rangitake, claimed that the sale of the land was invalid because he had not given his consent. The British government, on the other hand, argued that the sale was legal and proceeded to establish a military garrison on the land.

The M?ori responded by building fortifications around the town and refusing to allow the British soldiers to leave their garrison. Tensions escalated, and in July 1860, fighting broke out between the two sides. The conflict quickly spread to other parts of Taranaki, with both sides suffering casualties.

The British government eventually sent more troops to the region, and in March 1861, they succeeded in taking control of Waitara. However, the war did not completely end, and sporadic fighting continued in the region for several years.

12 March 1913

King George I of Greece is assassinated in the recently liberated city of Thessaloniki.

King George I of Greece was assassinated on March 18, 1913, in Thessaloniki, Greece. He was shot by a lone gunman named Alexandros Schinas while taking a walk in the city. The assassination is believed to have been politically motivated, as there was considerable opposition to his reign and his policies. King George I had been on the throne since 1863 and was known for his efforts to modernize and reform Greece, but his reign was marked by political instability and conflict. The assassination of King George I was a significant event in Greek history and led to a period of political turmoil and uncertainty in the country.

17 March 1969

Golda Meir becomes the first female Prime Minister of Israel.

Golda Meir was an Israeli politician who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Israel from 1969 to 1974. Born in Kiev, Ukraine in 1898, she immigrated to the United States with her family when she was a child, and later moved to Palestine in 1921.

In Palestine, Meir became involved in the labor movement and eventually rose to prominence as a leader of the Zionist movement. She served in a variety of roles in the Israeli government, including as Minister of Labor and Foreign Minister, before being elected as Prime Minister in 1969.

During her time in office, Meir faced a number of challenges, including the 1973 Yom Kippur War and a global economic recession. She was known for her strong leadership and her commitment to Israel’s security, and was widely respected both in Israel and internationally.

Meir resigned as Prime Minister in 1974, citing health reasons. She passed away in 1978 at the age of 80.

16 March 1898

In Melbourne, the representatives of five colonies adopt a constitution, which would become the basis of the Commonwealth of Australia.

Australia has a written constitution, which is the fundamental law of the country. The Constitution of Australia came into effect on January 1, 1901, and outlines the structure and powers of the federal government, as well as the relationship between the federal and state governments.

The Australian Constitution also guarantees certain individual rights and freedoms, including the right to trial by jury, the right to vote, and the right to freedom of religion. The Constitution can only be changed through a process known as a referendum, which requires a majority vote in both houses of Parliament and approval by the majority of voters in a national referendum.

15 March 1918

Finnish Civil War: The battle of Tampere begins

The Finnish Civil War was fought from January to May 1918, and it ended with the victory of the White Guard over the Red Guard. The White Guard was composed of conservative and nationalist groups who wanted to maintain Finland’s independence and were supported by Germany. The Red Guard, on the other hand, was composed of socialist groups who wanted a revolution and were supported by the Soviet Union.

After a series of battles and sieges, the White Guard captured Helsinki on May 12, 1918, which effectively ended the war. The Red Guard surrendered and their leaders were subsequently imprisoned, executed, or sent into exile. The victory of the White Guard led to the establishment of a conservative government in Finland, which remained in power until the end of World War II.

14 March 1900

The Gold Standard Act is ratified, placing the United States currency on the gold standard.

The Gold Standard Act is a United States federal law that was enacted in 1900. It established gold as the only standard for redeeming paper money, meaning that paper currency could be redeemed for a fixed amount of gold. The law set the value of a gold dollar at $1.505632, which meant that one ounce of gold was worth $20.67.

The Gold Standard Act was intended to stabilize the value of the currency and to promote economic growth. It was also seen as a way to prevent inflation and to restore confidence in the U.S. monetary system, which had been shaken by the Panic of 1893.

The Gold Standard Act remained in effect until 1933, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order that effectively ended the gold standard. This was done in response to the economic crisis of the Great Depression, and the U.S. government’s need for increased flexibility in monetary policy.

13 March 1969

13 March 1969 – Apollo 9 returns safely to Earth after testing the Lunar Module.

The Apollo 9 mission was the third manned mission in the United States’ Apollo space program and was launched on March 3, 1969. The mission was designed to test the lunar module, which would eventually land astronauts on the Moon, in Earth’s orbit.

The crew of Apollo 9 consisted of Commander James McDivitt, Command Module Pilot David Scott, and Lunar Module Pilot Rusty Schweickart. During the ten-day mission, the crew conducted a series of tests and maneuvers to evaluate the performance of the lunar module in a simulated lunar landing mission.

The crew performed the first manned flight of the lunar module, separating it from the command module and testing its propulsion system, guidance, and navigation. They also conducted extravehicular activity (EVA) or spacewalks, to evaluate the lunar module’s ability to serve as a platform for future moonwalks.

Additionally, the crew tested various life-support systems, including the backpacks used by the astronauts during EVAs. The mission was a critical step in NASA’s goal of landing humans on the Moon and returning them safely to Earth.