10 July 1553

Lady Jane Grey takes the throne of England.

Lady Jane Grey, also known as the “Nine Days’ Queen,” was an English noblewoman who was briefly the de facto monarch of England in July 1553. Born in October 1537, she was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII through her mother, Lady Frances Brandon. Lady Jane was a highly educated and devout Protestant, which played a significant role in her brief ascendancy to the throne.

Her claim to the throne was largely orchestrated by John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, who sought to prevent the Catholic Mary Tudor from becoming queen after the death of Edward VI. Edward VI, Henry VIII’s son and Jane’s cousin, named her his successor in his will, bypassing his half-sisters Mary and Elizabeth.

On July 10, 1553, Lady Jane was proclaimed queen, but her reign was short-lived. Nine days later, she was deposed when Mary Tudor gathered enough support to claim the throne. Mary I, also known as “Bloody Mary,” subsequently imprisoned Jane in the Tower of London. Despite initial reluctance to execute her, Mary eventually ordered her execution after Jane’s father, Henry Grey, became involved in a rebellion against Mary’s rule.

Lady Jane Grey was executed on February 12, 1554, at the age of 16 or 17, making her one of the most tragic and short-lived figures in English history.

10 July 1943

World War II: Operation Husky begins in Sicily

During World War II, Operation Husky was the codename for the Allied invasion of Sicily. It was a major campaign that took place from July 9 to August 17, 1943. The objective of Operation Husky was to secure the island of Sicily, which was under Axis control, and pave the way for the Allied invasion of mainland Italy.

The operation involved a combined force of British, American, and Canadian troops under the overall command of General Dwight D. Eisenhower. The invasion force included airborne units, naval assets, and ground forces. The Allies conducted extensive air and naval bombardments prior to the amphibious assault to weaken Axis defenses.

On July 9, 1943, the invasion began with British and Canadian forces landing on the southeastern coast of Sicily, while American forces landed on the southern coast. Despite initial resistance from the Axis forces, the Allies were able to establish a foothold and expand their beachheads.

Over the following weeks, the Allies advanced inland, engaging in intense fighting with German and Italian troops. The mountainous terrain of Sicily posed challenges for both sides. The Axis forces, facing overwhelming Allied numbers, eventually decided to evacuate the island to prevent the destruction of their armies.

By August 17, 1943, the Allies had successfully captured Sicily. Operation Husky marked an important turning point in the war, as it opened up the Mediterranean to Allied shipping and provided a base for further operations in Italy. The success of the invasion also had political repercussions, leading to the downfall of Italian Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini and the eventual surrender of Italy to the Allies.

10 July 1985

The Greenpeace vessel Rainbow Warrior is bombed and sunk in Auckland harbor by French DGSE agents, killing Fernando Pereira. This caused considerable tension between France and New Zealand with France initially denying any involvement. Two agents were arrested and found guilty of manslaughter in Auckland. The French government had to later admit that they were involved after the Le Monde newspaper reported that the attack had been approved by the French President.

10 July 1553

Lady Jane Grey takes the throne of England.

On the afternoon of Monday 10th July 1553, Lady Jane Grey, her husband, Guildford Dudley, her parents and Guildford’s mother arrived by barge at the Tower of London, having travelled from Syon. They were greeted there by Guildford’s father, John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, and other councillors, before they made their way through the Tower gates, Jane and Guildford walking under the canopy of state.

As the procession reached the Tower there was a gun salute and trumpets blasted to silence the crowd. Two heralds then proclaimed that Lady Jane Grey was now Queen of England before they moved on to proclaim their message in Cheapside and Fleet Street. At Cheapside, a boy declared that it was Mary who was the rightful queen and he was punished the next morning by having his ears cut off.

On this very same day, a letter arrived from Mary informing the council that she was the rightful heir to the throne, not Jane, and demanding their support. As Jane was proclaimed Queen in London, Mary was gathering support for her cause in East Anglia, Jane was going to have a fight on her hands.

10 July 1553

Lady Jane Grey takes the throne of England.

6804,Lady Jane Dudley (née Grey)

Jane was nominal queen of England for just nine days in 1553,as part of an unsuccessful bid to prevent the accession of the Catholic Mary Tudor.

Jane was born in the autumn of 1537, the daughter of the Marquess of Dorset. Through her mother, Lady Frances Brandon, she was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII. At around the age of 10, Jane entered the household of Henry VIII’s last queen, Katherine Parr where she was exposed to a strongly Protestant, academic environment. Jane developed into an intelligent and pious woman.

In October 1551, her father was created duke of Suffolk and Jane began to appear at court. There, real power lay in the hands of the fiercely Protestant Duke of Northumberland, who acted as regent to the young king, Edward VI. In May 1553, Jane was married to Northumberland’s son, Lord Guildford Dudley.

It became clear that Edward was dying, and Northumberland was desperate to prevent the throne passing to Edward’s half-sister and heir, the Catholic Mary Tudor. Northumberland persuaded the king to declare Mary illegitimate, as well as Edward’s other half-sister Elizabeth, and alter the line of succession to pass to Jane.

Edward died on 6 July 1553. Four days later, Jane was proclaimed queen. However, Mary Tudor had widespread popular support and by mid-July, even Suffolk had abandoned his daughter and was attempting to save himself by proclaiming Mary queen. Northumberland’s supporters melted away and Suffolk easily persuaded his daughter to relinquish the crown.

Mary imprisoned Jane, her husband and her father in the Tower of London. While Suffolk was pardoned, Jane and her husband were tried for high treason in November 1553. Jane pleaded guilty and was sentenced to death. The carrying out of the sentence was suspended, but Suffolk’s support for Sir Thomas Wyatt’s rebellion in February 1554 sealed Jane’s fate. On 12 February, she and her husband were beheaded. Her father followed them two days later.