13 August 1645

Sweden and Denmark sign Peace of Brömsebro.

The Second Treaty of Brömsebro was a significant diplomatic agreement signed on August 13, 1645, between Sweden and Denmark-Norway. It marked the end of the Torstenson War, a conflict that was part of the larger Thirty Years’ War that ravaged Europe during the 17th century.

The treaty was signed in the town of Brömsebro, located in present-day Sweden, and it brought about several territorial and political changes in the region.

Provisions of the treaty:

Territorial Changes:
Sweden gained substantial territorial gains at the expense of Denmark-Norway. The provinces of Jämtland, Härjedalen, and the northern part of Bohuslän were ceded to Sweden.
Trøndelag, a region in present-day Norway, was split into two parts. The northern part, Nord-Trøndelag, remained under Danish-Norwegian control, while the southern part, Sør-Trøndelag, was ceded to Sweden.

Trade and Economic Provisions:
The treaty established certain provisions to facilitate trade between the two countries, including the establishment of toll stations in specific areas.

Religious Freedom:
The treaty ensured religious freedom for the inhabitants of the ceded territories, allowing them to maintain their religious practices without interference.

The treaty was a significant victory for Sweden, as it solidified its position as a major power in Northern Europe. The territorial gains and concessions secured in the treaty expanded Sweden’s control over key regions and bolstered its influence in the region. The treaty’s emphasis on religious freedom was also notable, reflecting the broader context of the Thirty Years’ War, which had been characterized by religious conflicts.

The Second Treaty of Brömsebro contributed to the reconfiguration of power dynamics in Northern Europe during the 17th century, with Sweden emerging as a dominant player and Denmark-Norway losing some of its territory and influence. The treaty’s effects can still be seen in the modern political and geographical landscape of Scandinavia.

13 August 1645

Sweden and Denmark sign Peace of Brömsebro.

The Second Treaty of Brömsebro or the Peace of Brömsebro was signed on 13 August 1645, and ended the Torstenson War, a local conflict that began in 1643 and was part of the larger Thirty Years’ War between Sweden and Denmark-Norway. Negotiations for the treaty began in February the same year.

The eastern border between the then Danish province of Blekinge and the Swedish province of Småland was formed by the creek Brömsebäck. In this creek lies an islet that was connected to the Danish and Swedish riversides by bridges. On the islet was a stone that was supposed to mark the exact border between the two countries. By this stone, the delegates met to exchange greetings and, at the end of the negotiations, the signed documents. The Danish delegation stayed in Kristianopel while the Swedish side had their accommodation in Söderåkra.

Sweden’s highest ranking representative was Lord High Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna. He was accompanied by, among others, Johan Skytte, who died during the negotiations and was replaced by Ture Sparre.

Corfitz Ulfeldt and Chancellor Christen Thomesen Sehested were the chief negotiators of the Danish delegation.

The French diplomat Gaspard Coignet de la Thuillerie was head mediator and observers from the Hanseatic League, Portugal, Stralsund and Mecklenburg followed the negotiations.