13 July 1913

The 1913 Romanian Army cholera outbreak during the Second Balkan War starts

The 1913 Romanian Army cholera outbreak occurred during the Second Balkan War, which was fought from June to August 1913.

Background:

Second Balkan War: This conflict involved several Balkan states, primarily Bulgaria against its former allies Serbia, Greece, and Romania, as well as the Ottoman Empire. The war arose from territorial disputes following the First Balkan War.
Romania’s Involvement: Romania entered the war against Bulgaria in July 1913, seeking to claim territories promised during diplomatic negotiations.

Cholera Outbreak:

Outbreak Timing: The cholera outbreak struck the Romanian Army in the summer of 1913, coinciding with their military campaign against Bulgaria.
Conditions: The outbreak was exacerbated by the poor sanitary conditions and overcrowded camps, common during wartime. The movement of troops and lack of proper sanitation facilitated the spread of the disease.
Impact on Soldiers: Cholera, a severe diarrheal illness caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, led to significant morbidity and mortality among the Romanian soldiers. The symptoms included severe dehydration, which could be fatal if not treated promptly.
Response: The Romanian military and medical authorities struggled to contain the outbreak due to limited medical knowledge and resources. Efforts to improve sanitation and provide medical care were undertaken, but the high mobility of troops made containment difficult.

Consequences:

Military Impact: The cholera outbreak weakened the Romanian Army, reducing its effectiveness in the field. This had strategic implications for their campaign during the war.
Casualties: The exact number of casualties from the cholera outbreak is not well-documented, but it significantly affected the Romanian forces.
Post-War Measures: The outbreak highlighted the need for better sanitary practices and medical preparedness in military operations. Lessons learned from the outbreak contributed to future improvements in military hygiene and medical care.

3 February 1913

The Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, authorizing the Federal government to impose and collect an income tax.

The Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified on February 3, 1913. It granted Congress the power to levy income taxes on individuals and corporations. The full text of the amendment is as follows:

“Congress shall have the power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the states, and without regard to any census or enumeration.”

Before the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment, the federal government primarily relied on revenue from tariffs and excise taxes. The amendment marked a significant shift in how the government could generate funds by introducing the authority to impose direct taxes on income.

29 December 1913

Cecil B. DeMille starts filming Hollywood’s first feature film, The Squaw Man.

“The Squaw Man” is historically significant as Hollywood’s first feature film. It was directed by Cecil B. DeMille and Oscar Apfel and produced by Jesse Lasky. The film was released in 1914 and marked the beginning of Hollywood’s dominance in the American film industry.

“The Squaw Man” is a silent Western film based on a popular stage play of the same name written by Edwin Milton Royle. The story revolves around a British aristocrat, Captain James Wynnegate, who is accused of a crime he did not commit. To avoid scandal, he escapes to the American West, where he encounters the daughter of a Native American chief, Nat-u-ritch. The two fall in love, and the film explores themes of cultural clash and social prejudices.

One of the noteworthy aspects of “The Squaw Man” is that it was not only Hollywood’s first feature film but also the first feature film shot entirely in California. Prior to this, many American films were produced on the East Coast. The decision to film in California was influenced by the region’s diverse landscapes and favorable weather conditions, which allowed for year-round filming.

The success of “The Squaw Man” played a crucial role in establishing Hollywood as the center of the American film industry. Following this film, Hollywood continued to grow, attracting more filmmakers, studios, and talent. Cecil B. DeMille went on to become one of the most successful and influential directors in Hollywood history, contributing significantly to the development of the film industry.

21 December 1913

Arthur Wynne’s “word-cross”, the first crossword puzzle, is published in the New York World.

The crossword puzzle has a fascinating history that dates back to the late 19th century.

Precursors to Crossword Puzzles (19th Century): Before the crossword puzzle as we know it today, there were word games and puzzles that involved arranging words and letters in a grid. For example, an early form of a word square was published in an Italian book in 1550. However, these were not quite the crossword puzzles we’re familiar with.

The Birth of the Crossword Puzzle (1913): The modern crossword puzzle is generally credited to Arthur Wynne, a British-born journalist who was working for the New York World newspaper. On December 21, 1913, the newspaper published what is considered the first-ever crossword puzzle. It was a diamond-shaped grid with simple clues.

Popularity Growth (1920s): Crossword puzzles quickly gained popularity. The New York Times introduced its first crossword puzzle in 1942, and it became a daily feature in 1950. The crossword craze spread to other newspapers, and people across the United States were captivated by the challenge and entertainment these puzzles offered.

Word-Cross to Crossword: The name “crossword” itself evolved from the original term “word-cross.” This change in name occurred as the puzzle’s popularity grew and the format became standardized.

Crossword Dictionaries and Solving Techniques: As crossword puzzles became more widespread, the need for crossword dictionaries and solving techniques emerged. People started developing strategies for tackling the challenging clues, and specialized dictionaries were published to aid in solving.

Variations and Innovations: Over the years, crossword puzzles have seen various innovations and variations. Cryptic crosswords, where clues involve wordplay and often require a deeper level of thinking, became popular in the UK. In the United States, the American-style crossword with its focus on quick, straightforward clues became the norm.

Digital Age and Online Crosswords: With the advent of the internet, crossword puzzles transitioned from newspapers to online platforms. Many newspapers and independent websites offer daily crossword puzzles, and there are even crossword-solving apps.

Competitions and Events: Crossword puzzle competitions, such as the American Crossword Puzzle Tournament (ACPT), have become popular events. These competitions attract avid crossword enthusiasts from around the world.

Global Popularity: The popularity of crossword puzzles is not limited to the English-speaking world. Crossword puzzles in various languages are enjoyed by people worldwide, each with its own linguistic and cultural twists.

12 March 1913

King George I of Greece is assassinated in the recently liberated city of Thessaloniki.

King George I of Greece was assassinated on March 18, 1913, in Thessaloniki, Greece. He was shot by a lone gunman named Alexandros Schinas while taking a walk in the city. The assassination is believed to have been politically motivated, as there was considerable opposition to his reign and his policies. King George I had been on the throne since 1863 and was known for his efforts to modernize and reform Greece, but his reign was marked by political instability and conflict. The assassination of King George I was a significant event in Greek history and led to a period of political turmoil and uncertainty in the country.

23 June 1913

The Greeks defeat the Bulgarians in the Battle of Doiran during the Second Balkan War.

The Battle of Doiran was a battle of the Second Balkan War, fought between the Bulgarian and the Greek army. The battle took place in 23 June 1913.

The Greek armed forces, after the victory at Kilkis-Lachanas, continued their advance north and successfully engaged the Bulgarians at Lake Doiran. As a result of their subsequent defeat, the Bulgarian forces retreated further north.

The Doiran Lake was at the right wing of the Bulgarian line of defense. The 2nd Bulgarian Army was responsible for the defense of this sector. The Bulgarian artillery was for some time successful against the Greek attack.

The Bulgarians evacuated the region and retreated north after several hours of fighting.

19 June 1913

The Natives Land Act, 1913 in South Africa implemented.

The Natives Land Act of 1913 was the first major piece of segregation legislation passed by the Union Parliament. It was replaced by the current policy of land restitution. The act decreed that whites were not allowed to buy land from natives and vice versa. That stopped white farmers from buying more native land. Exceptions had to be approved by the Governor-General. The native areas left initially totaled less than 10% of the entire land mass of the Union, which was later expanded to 13%.

The Act further prohibited the practice of serfdom or sharecropping. It also protected existing agreements or arrangement of land hired or leased by both parties.

This land was in “native reserve” areas, which meant it was under “communal” tenure vested in African chiefs: it could not be bought, sold or used as surety. Outside such areas, perhaps of even greater significance for black farming was that the Act forbade black tenant farming on white-owned land. Since so many black farmers were sharecroppers or labor tenants, that had a devastating effect, but its full implementation was not immediate. The Act strengthened the chiefs, who were part of the state administration, but it forced many blacks into the “white” areas into wage labour.