The Makhnovshchina is established.
The Makhnovshchina, also known as the Makhnovist movement or the Free Territory, was an anarchist and anti-Bolshevik revolutionary insurrection that took place in Ukraine during the Russian Civil War (1918-1922). It was led by Nestor Makhno, a Ukrainian anarchist and military commander.
Nestor Makhno and his followers, known as the Makhnovists or Black Army, were initially aligned with the Bolsheviks against the common enemies of the White Army (anti-Bolshevik forces) and foreign interventionists. However, tensions soon arose between the Makhnovists and the Bolsheviks, primarily due to differences in their political ideologies and strategies.
The Makhnovists advocated for a free, stateless society based on anarchist principles, emphasizing the decentralization of power and the organization of society through voluntary cooperation. They opposed the centralization of authority and the establishment of a new state, which put them at odds with the Bolshevik government led by Vladimir Lenin.
The conflict between the Makhnovists and the Bolsheviks escalated, leading to a series of confrontations and betrayals. Ultimately, the Red Army, under Bolshevik control, turned against the Makhnovists, viewing them as a threat to the Bolshevik vision of a centralized socialist state. The Makhnovshchina was eventually suppressed, and Nestor Makhno and many of his followers went into exile.
The Makhnovshchina remains a complex and debated episode in the history of the Russian Civil War, as it reflects the ideological and strategic divergences within the broader revolutionary movements of the time.
Bolshevik revolutionary leader Moisei Uritsky is assassinated.
Moisei Solomonovich Uritsky was a prominent Bolshevik revolutionary leader who played a significant role during the early days of the Russian Revolution and the subsequent Russian Civil War. He was born on April 14, 1873, in the town of Romny, which is now part of Ukraine.
Uritsky became involved in revolutionary activities at a young age and joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), which later split into the Bolshevik and Menshevik factions. He sided with the Bolsheviks and was known for his fervent dedication to the party’s cause.
During the October Revolution of 1917, which led to the Bolsheviks’ rise to power, Uritsky played a crucial role in Petrograd (modern-day Saint Petersburg), which was a key center of revolutionary activity. He was appointed as the head of the Cheka (All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage), the Bolshevik secret police and security agency.
However, Uritsky’s time in power was short-lived. On August 30, 1918, he was assassinated by Leonid Kannegisser, a young man who opposed Bolshevik rule and held Uritsky responsible for the repressive actions of the Cheka. Kannegisser managed to infiltrate Uritsky’s office in Petrograd and shot him, before being apprehended and subsequently executed.
Uritsky’s assassination was a significant event during a period of intense turmoil in Russia. It further highlighted the deepening divide between the Bolsheviks and their opponents, both within and outside the party. Uritsky’s death also contributed to the Bolsheviks’ growing concern about internal security and the need to suppress perceived threats to their rule.
Following Uritsky’s assassination, Felix Dzerzhinsky took over as the head of the Cheka. Dzerzhinsky continued Uritsky’s work of establishing a strong and feared security apparatus, which played a key role in maintaining Bolshevik control during the early years of the Soviet regime.
World War I: The first phase of the German Spring Offensive, Operation Michael, begins.
Operation Michael, also known as the Spring Offensive, was a major German military campaign during World War I that took place from March to July 1918. It was the last attempt by the German army to achieve a decisive victory on the Western Front before the arrival of American troops and marked the high point of Germany’s military power during the war.
The operation began on March 21, 1918, with a massive artillery bombardment of the Allied lines. This was followed by an assault by three German armies, which succeeded in breaking through the Allied front and advancing towards the English Channel. However, the German advance was ultimately halted due to supply problems, the exhaustion of the troops, and the arrival of reinforcements from the Allied powers.
Despite early successes, Operation Michael was ultimately a failure for Germany, as it did not achieve its strategic objectives and resulted in heavy casualties on both sides. The operation marked the beginning of a series of offensives and counteroffensives that ultimately led to Germany’s defeat in the war.
Finnish Civil War: The battle of Tampere begins
The Finnish Civil War was fought from January to May 1918, and it ended with the victory of the White Guard over the Red Guard. The White Guard was composed of conservative and nationalist groups who wanted to maintain Finland’s independence and were supported by Germany. The Red Guard, on the other hand, was composed of socialist groups who wanted a revolution and were supported by the Soviet Union.
After a series of battles and sieges, the White Guard captured Helsinki on May 12, 1918, which effectively ended the war. The Red Guard surrendered and their leaders were subsequently imprisoned, executed, or sent into exile. The victory of the White Guard led to the establishment of a conservative government in Finland, which remained in power until the end of World War II.
Estonian Declaration of Independence.
The Estonian Declaration of Independence was proclaimed on February 24, 1918, by the Estonian Provincial Assembly in Tallinn, Estonia. The declaration marked the end of over two centuries of foreign rule and established Estonia as an independent republic.
The declaration was a response to the political chaos that emerged after the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the aftermath of the revolution, Estonia was briefly occupied by both German and Soviet forces, but in late 1917, the Estonian Provincial Assembly declared itself the supreme authority in the region.
The declaration itself was written by a committee of Estonian leaders, including Konstantin Päts, Jüri Vilms, and Konstantin Konik. It declared Estonia to be an independent democratic republic with a government elected by the people.
The declaration was not immediately recognized by foreign powers, and Estonia had to fight for its independence in the Estonian War of Independence, which lasted from 1918 to 1920. The war was ultimately successful, and Estonia was recognized as an independent state by the Soviet Union in the Treaty of Tartu in 1920.
The Estonian Declaration of Independence remains an important symbol of Estonian national identity and is celebrated as a national holiday in Estonia every February 24th.
Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car in the forest of Compiègne.
The 1918 influenza epidemic spreads to Western Samoa, killing 7,542 (about 20% of the population) by the end of the year.
Massacre of ethnic Azerbaijanis is committed by allied armed groups of Armenian Revolutionary Federation and Bolsheviks. Nearly 12,000 Azerbaijani Muslims are killed.
Beginning of the Finnish Civil War.
The Hammond Circus Train Wreck kills 86 near Hammond, Indiana.