17 September 1965

The Battle of Chawinda is fought between Pakistan and India.

The Battle of Chawinda was a significant engagement during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. This conflict, also known as the Second Kashmir War, took place between India and Pakistan over the disputed regions of Jammu and Kashmir. The Battle of Chawinda occurred in the Sialkot sector of Punjab, Pakistan, and it was one of the largest tank battles since World War II.

Background: The war began in April 1965 and escalated in September. Both India and Pakistan had territorial disputes in the region of Jammu and Kashmir, which led to this conflict. The Pakistani military, under the leadership of President Ayub Khan, sought to challenge Indian control over certain areas.

Location: Chawinda is a town in the Sialkot district of Punjab, Pakistan. It was strategically important because it was situated near the border and had good road connectivity.

Tank Warfare: The battle primarily involved tank warfare. The Indian Army’s 1st Armored Division, commanded by Major General Rajendra Singh Yadav, faced off against the Pakistani Army’s 6th Armored Division, commanded by Major General Nasir Ahmad. Both sides had American-made M48 Patton tanks and British-made Centurion tanks.

Fierce Fighting: The battle commenced on September 11, 1965, and continued for several days. It was characterized by intense tank battles, artillery duels, and infantry engagements. The terrain was flat and open, which favored tank warfare.

Pakistani Defense: The Pakistani forces, under the leadership of General Ahmad, put up a determined defense. They used anti-tank mines and well-prepared defensive positions to slow down the Indian advance.

Stalemate: Despite heavy fighting and casualties on both sides, the battle reached a stalemate. Neither side could achieve a decisive victory in the Chawinda sector. The battle eventually subsided, with both sides claiming success.

Ceasefire: The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 ended with a ceasefire agreement brokered by the United Nations and the Tashkent Agreement in January 1966. The ceasefire left the situation in Kashmir largely unchanged.

Legacy: The Battle of Chawinda is often regarded as a symbol of the courage and determination of both the Indian and Pakistani soldiers. It also underscored the limitations of armored warfare in the subcontinent’s terrain.

28 March 1965

An Mw? 7.4 earthquake in Chile sets off a series of tailings dam failures, burying the town of El Cobre and killing at least 500 people.

The earthquake that occurred in Chile in 1965 is known as the Great Chilean earthquake or the Valdivia earthquake. It was the most powerful earthquake ever recorded, with a magnitude of 9.5 on the Richter scale, and it caused widespread damage throughout the country.