23 October 1998

Israel and the Palestinian Authority sign the Wye River Memorandum.

The Wye River Memorandum, also known as the Wye River Agreement, was an important interim agreement between Israel and the Palestinian Authority that aimed to address various outstanding issues in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The memorandum was signed on October 23, 1998, at the Wye River Conference Center in Maryland, USA. The signing ceremony was attended by then-Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and then-Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat, with U.S. President Bill Clinton serving as a witness and mediator.

The Wye River Memorandum built upon earlier agreements, such as the Oslo Accords, and was seen as a step toward implementing the “land for peace” framework.

Security Provisions: The memorandum included detailed security arrangements that both parties agreed to follow to combat terrorism and reduce violence. It established a series of steps for the gradual redeployment of Israeli forces from parts of the West Bank, allowing for greater Palestinian self-rule.

Territorial Issues: The agreement addressed issues related to the transfer of additional land to Palestinian control and set the stage for further withdrawals of Israeli forces from parts of the West Bank.

Palestinian Commitments: The Palestinian Authority committed to taking measures to combat terrorism and incitement to violence. It was also required to amend the Palestinian National Covenant to remove clauses calling for the destruction of Israel.

Final Status Negotiations: The Wye River Memorandum reaffirmed the commitment of both parties to negotiate final status issues, such as the borders, refugees, and Jerusalem.

U.S. Commitment: The United States played a significant role in brokering the agreement and committed to providing assistance and monitoring the implementation of the agreement.

The implementation of the Wye River Memorandum faced many challenges and setbacks, including disputes, violence, and delays. Despite the agreement, the larger issues of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict were not fully resolved. The memorandum was seen as a confidence-building measure that aimed to move the peace process forward, but it did not lead to a final peace agreement.

23 October 1707

The first Parliament of Great Britain meets.

The first Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain was established in 1707 after the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. It was in fact the 4th and last session of the 2nd Parliament of Queen Anne suitably renamed: no fresh elections were held in England, and the existing members of the House of Commons of England sat as members of the new House of Commons of Great Britain. In Scotland, prior to the union coming into effect, the Scottish Parliament appointed sixteen peers and 45 Members of Parliaments to join their English counterparts at Westminster.

23 October 1707

The first Parliament of Great Britain meets.

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The first Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain was established in 1707, after the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. No fresh elections were held in England, and the existing members of the House of Commons of England sat as members of the new House of Commons of Great Britain. In Scotland, prior to the union coming into effect, the Scottish Parliament appointed sixteen peers and 45 Members of Parliaments to join their English counterparts in Westminster.

The Parliament of Scotland duly passed an Act settling the manner of electing the sixteen peers and forty five commoners to represent Scotland in the Parliament of Great Britain. A special provision for the 1st Parliament of Great Britain was “that the Sixteen Peers and Forty five Commissioners for Shires and Burghs shall be chosen by the Peers, Barrons and Burghs respectively in this present session of Parliament and out of the members thereof in the same manner that Committees of Parliament are usually now chosen shall be the members of the respective Houses of the said first Parliament of Great Britain for and on the part of Scotland.

23 October 1707

Parliament meets for the first time in Great Britain.

Old Houses of Parliament, Palace of Westminster, London: the Parliament House from Old Palace Yard

 

The first Parliament of the Kingdom of Great Britain was established in the 23rd of October 1707, after the merger of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland. No fresh elections were held in England, and the existing members of the House of Commons of England sat as members of the new House of Commons of Great Britain. In Scotland, prior to the union coming into effect, the Scottish Parliament appointed sixteen peers and 45 Members of Parliaments to join their English counterparts in Westminster.When the new parliamentary session began on 23 October, English parliamentarians warmly welcomed their new Scottish colleagues in the Lords and Commons. Scots MPs had to accustom themselves to a cut-and-thrust style of debate in the Commons which was very different from the slow formality to which they had been accustomed in Edinburgh. The Queen’s speech to parliament on 6 November, made no mention of the Union, until she had given a long account of the state of the war against France. This highlighted the main reason why England had wanted Union.