Atari releases Pong, the first commercially successful video game
“Pong” is a classic arcade game that is considered one of the earliest video games. It was created by Atari and released in 1972. Pong is often regarded as the first commercially successful arcade video game, and it played a significant role in establishing the video game industry.
The game simulates table tennis or ping pong, where players control paddles on either side of the screen, with the objective of hitting a ball back and forth. The game is designed for two players, and each player uses a rotary controller or a joystick to move their paddle vertically.
The gameplay is straightforward: the ball moves horizontally across the screen, and players must use their paddles to hit the ball, preventing it from passing their side of the screen. If a player misses the ball, the opposing player scores a point. The game continues until one player reaches a predetermined score, typically 11 points.
Pong’s simplicity and intuitive gameplay contributed to its widespread popularity. The success of Pong helped establish Atari as a major player in the emerging video game industry. The game was so influential that it paved the way for the development and success of other arcade games and home gaming consoles.
Pong’s legacy extends beyond its initial release; it has become an iconic symbol of the early days of video gaming. The game has been reimagined and re-released on numerous platforms over the years, and its impact can still be seen in the design of modern video games. Pong is often remembered as a pioneering title that laid the foundation for the video game industry’s growth and development.
Albania is liberated by the Partisans during World War 2.
After Italy was defeated by the Allies, Germany occupied Albania in September 1943, dropping paratroopers into Tirana before the Albanian guerrillas could take the capital, and the German army soon drove the guerrillas into the hills and to the south. Berlin subsequently announced it would recognize the independence of a neutral Albania and organized an Albanian government, police, and military. Many Balli Kombëtar units collaborated with the Germans against the communists, and several Balli Kombëtar leaders held positions in the German-sponsored regime.
The partisans entirely liberated Albania from German occupation on November 29, 1944. The National Liberation Army, which in October 1944 consisted of 70,000 regulars, also took part in the war alongside the antifascist coalition. The Albanian partisans also liberated Kosovo, and assisted Tito’s communist forces in liberating part of Montenegro and southern Bosnia and Herzegovina. By that time, the Soviet Army was also entering neighboring Yugoslavia, and the German Army was evacuating from Greece into Yugoslavia.
The papal conclave from November 29, 1549, to February 7, 1550, convened after the death of Pope Paul III and eventually elected Giovanni Del Monte to the papacy as Pope Julius III. It was the second-longest papal conclave of the 16th century, and the largest papal conclave in history in terms of the number of cardinal electors. The cardinal electors were roughly divided between the factions of Henry II of France, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and Alessandro Farnese, the cardinal-nephew of Paul III.
Noted for the extensive interference of European powers, the conclave was to determine whether and on what terms the Council of Trent would reconvene and the fate of the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza. Although the conclave nearly elected Reginald Pole, the late arrival of additional French cardinals pushed the conclave back into deadlock, and eventually Giovanni del Monte was elected Pope Julius III as a compromise candidate.
The French hoped that Julius III would be hostile to the interests of the Holy Roman Empire. Nevertheless, tensions between him and the French boiled over when he reconvened the Council of Trent in November 1550, culminating in the threat of schism in August 1551 and the brief War of Parma fought between French troops allied with Ottavio Farnese and a papal-imperial army. French prelates did not attend the 1551–1552 sessions of the Council of Trent and were slow to accept its reforms; because Henry II would not allow any French cardinals to reside in Rome, many missed the election of Pope Marcellus II, arriving in Rome just in time to elect Marcellus II’s successor Pope Paul IV after Marcellus II’s brief reign.
The missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife along with 15 others are killed by Cayuse and Umatilla Indians. this leads to the Cayuse War.
On November 29, 1847, a small group of Cayuse Indians attack the Whitman Mission near Walla Walla in what will become known as the Whitman Massacre. Dr. Marcus Whitman (1802-1847), his wife Narcissa Prentiss Whitman (1808-1847), nine other men, and two teenage boys are killed during several days of bloodshed, most of them on the first day. Another man escapes to Fort Walla Walla but is believed to have drowned shortly thereafter; he is counted as a 14th victim. About 50 survivors are held hostage for a month and then ransomed by the Hudson’s Bay Company. The attack, a pivotal event in Northwest history, will lead to a war of retaliation against the Cayuse and the extension of federal control over the present-day states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and parts of Montana and Wyoming.
The incident remains controversial to this day: the Whitmans are regarded by some as pioneer heroes; others see them as white settlers who attempted to impose their religion on the Native Americans and otherwise unjustly intrude, even allegedly poisoning the natives.