19 March 1861

The First Taranaki War ends in New Zealand.

The First Taranaki War was a significant conflict that occurred in New Zealand during the 19th century, specifically from March 1860 to March 1861. It was one of the conflicts collectively known as the New Zealand Wars, which were fought between indigenous M?ori tribes and the colonial government, primarily over issues of land ownership, sovereignty, and the imposition of British rule.

The immediate cause of the First Taranaki War was the dispute over land sales in the Taranaki region on the North Island of New Zealand. The New Zealand Company, a British organization involved in the colonization of New Zealand, had purchased large tracts of land in Taranaki from M?ori tribes. However, many M?ori disputed the legitimacy of these transactions, leading to tensions and conflicts.

The outbreak of violence occurred when the colonial government attempted to survey and sell land near the town of New Plymouth, which had been established by European settlers. M?ori tribes, particularly the Ng?ti Maniapoto and Taranaki tribes led by chiefs such as Wiremu K?ngi Te Rangit?ke (also known as William King), resisted these efforts. They erected a p? (fortified village) called P?k?k? to defend their territory.

The conflict involved skirmishes and battles between M?ori warriors and British troops, as well as local militia forces consisting of European settlers. Both sides suffered casualties during the fighting. The British military, equipped with superior weaponry and technology, initially had the advantage, but they faced challenges in navigating the difficult terrain and the guerilla tactics employed by the M?ori.

The war resulted in significant disruption to the region, with widespread destruction of property and displacement of both M?ori and European settlers. It also strained relations between M?ori and the colonial government, exacerbating existing grievances over land confiscations and breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi, which had been signed in 1840 between the British Crown and various M?ori chiefs.

The First Taranaki War ended in a stalemate, with neither side achieving a decisive victory. In March 1861, a ceasefire was agreed upon, but tensions in the region continued, and sporadic violence erupted in the following years. The issues underlying the conflict, particularly land disputes and grievances over colonization, remained unresolved, setting the stage for further conflicts in the years to come.