6 June 1933

The first drive-in theater opens in Camden, New Jersey.

Drive-in movie theaters are a type of cinema that allows moviegoers to watch films from the comfort of their cars. They offer a unique and nostalgic movie-watching experience, combining the excitement of going to the movies with the convenience of staying in your vehicle.

Features of drive-in movie theaters:

History: Drive-in theaters originated in the United States in the 1930s and became popular in the 1950s and 1960s. They were initially designed as a family-friendly entertainment option, providing a casual and relaxed atmosphere for movie viewing.

Outdoor Setting: Drive-in theaters are typically located in open fields or large parking lots. They feature a large screen positioned at the front, and rows of parking spaces facing the screen. The outdoor setting allows for a unique movie experience under the open sky.

Car-Based Viewing: The primary feature of drive-in theaters is that moviegoers watch the films from their own vehicles. Each parking space is designed to provide a clear view of the screen. People can sit inside their cars, recline their seats, and listen to the movie audio through their car radios. Some theaters also provide speakers that can be attached to car windows.

Snacks and Concessions: Like traditional theaters, drive-ins offer a concession stand or snack bar where viewers can purchase food and beverages. Popular choices include popcorn, candy, soda, hot dogs, nachos, and burgers. Many people bring their own snacks and drinks as well.

Socializing and Community: Drive-in theaters provide a social atmosphere where families and friends can gather together. People often set up chairs, blankets, or even create makeshift picnic areas outside their vehicles. This communal environment allows for interaction before the movie and during intermissions.

Double Features: Drive-in theaters commonly show double features, which means two movies are screened back-to-back. This provides viewers with extended entertainment and allows them to get the most out of their visit.

Seasonal Operation: Drive-in theaters are often seasonal and operate during spring, summer, and early fall when the weather is more conducive to outdoor activities. However, some drive-ins in warmer climates may operate year-round.

Modern Innovations: In recent years, drive-in theaters have embraced modern technology. Some have transitioned to digital projectors, offering better image quality and the ability to showcase 3D movies. Many drive-ins also provide an FM radio frequency for audio transmission, allowing viewers to tune in directly from their car radios.

Drive-in movie theaters have experienced a resurgence in popularity in recent times, offering a safe and socially distanced entertainment option during the COVID-19 pandemic. They provide a nostalgic and enjoyable movie experience that continues to captivate audiences of all ages.

14 July 1933

Nazi eugenics programme begins with the proclamation of the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring requiring the compulsory sterilization of any citizen who suffers from alleged genetic disorders

27 May 1933

The Walt Disney Company releases the cartoon Three Little Pigs, with its hit song “Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?”

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16 February 1933

The Blaine Act ends Prohibition in the United States.

The Blaine Act, formally titled Joint Resolution Proposing the Twenty-First Amendment to the United States Constitution, is a joint resolution adopted by the United States Congress on February 20, 1933, initiating repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which established Prohibition in the United States. Repeal was finalized when the 21st Amendment to the Constitution was ratified by the required minimum number of states on December 5, 1933.

“Wets” in Congress perceived that support for Prohibition was waning. A week after the defeat of the Bingham repeal proposal, House “wets” began drafting legislation to amend the Volstead Act to permit the manufacture of beer once more. Their goal was to force a vote before the session of Congress ended in July 1932. With only 34 “wet” votes in the Senate and 190 in the House, repeal lobbyists believed no action could be taken until after the November 1932 elections.

Congressional “wets” received a major boost on February 20 when a leading Democratic candidate for president, Franklin D. Roosevelt, announced he supported repeal of the 18th Amendment as a means of generating tax revenues for the federal government and states. Roosevelt’s support for repeal boosted “wet” support in the House. On February 16, the House Judiciary Committee had voted 14-to-9 against the Beck-Linthicum resolution, which would have asked state legislatures to reaffirm or repeal the 18th Amendment. House “wets” then shocked political leaders in both sides on February 25 by obtaining 110 signatures on a discharge petition for the Beck-Linthicum resolution. The “wets” secured the required 145 signatures for discharge on March 1. The Beck-Linthicum resolution received 187 votes, resulting in the smallest majority “drys” had managed to muster since the start of Prohibition. House “wets”, who considered the vote on Beck-Linthicum only a test of their growing strength, were thrilled by the vote.

The House test vote was encouraging to Senate “wets” as well. On March 19, Blaine’s Judiciary subcommittee favorably reported a bill by Senator Bingham proposing the legalization of 4 percent beer. Surprisingly, the subcommittee report even called modification of the 18th Amendment useless. Three days later, a bipartisan group of 38 Senators surprised the Senate by signing a letter demanding a vote to modify or repeal the 18th Amendment. The letter referred to four resolutions before Blaine’s subcommittee. Senator George W. Norris, chair of the full Judiciary Committee, promised the group that his committee would report at least one of the bills, and give senators a chance to vote on it on the Senate floor.

House “wets” appeared to suffer a setback on March 25 when the House rejected a bill, proposed by Rep. Thomas H. Cullen, to amend the Volstead Act to permit the manufacture of 2.75 percent beer and tax it.

“Wets” in the Senate also lost ground. Blaine began holding hearings on repeal of the 18th Amendment in mid April, and on April 19 the Senate Manufactures Committee unfavorably reported a 4 percent beer bill which had the perverse outcome of enabling a floor vote. In this test vote, “wets” were able to secure only 24 votes.

In May 1932, House “wets” shocked the political establishment again by securing enough signatures on a discharge petition to free the O’Connor-Hull bill from the House Ways and Means Committee. The House defeated the bill, which would have permitted 2.75 percent beer and taxed it at a rate of 3 percent of its retail value, 228 to 169. It was a significant drop in anti-Prohibition support.

23 March 1933

The Reichstag passes the Enabling Act of 1933. This makes Adolf Hitler the dictator of Germany.

The Enabling Act was passed on March 23rd 1933. The act was to have huge consequences for the citizens of Nazi Germany. The formal title for the Enabling Act was the ‘Law to Remedy the Distress of People and Reich’

Hitler had been appointed Chancellor on January 30th 1933. However, he had no intention of acting within a participatory democracy. His plans included the abolition of other political parties with all political powers placed into his hands. Hitler was helped in this by the Reichstag Fire. This put the government building out of use and for the German Parliament to function it needed a suitable building to replace it. The Kroll Opera House was used. It was a convenient choice. It was small enough to make any SA presence look very menacing if Reichstag members were not going to vote accordingly.

However, Hitler could not be sure that the bill would be passed. The March 5th 1933 election had clearly shown that the Nazis were not as popular as Hitler would have wished. They only gained a majority of Deputy seats with the help of the German National Peoples Party. The Communists were no longer an issue as their leaders had been arrested and the party banned after it was blamed for the Reichstag fire. Hitler hoped that the other nationalists would be persuaded to vote for the act. It was the Centre Party that concerned him the most as he felt that those who did not want to vote for the act would rally around the Centre Party. Therefore he made a deal with the party – he would protect all of the rights that Catholics had in Germany as well as foster better relations with the Vatican. It was good enough for the Centre’s party leader, Ludwig Kaas, who advocated that the party support the bill. The only party that did not support the bill was the Social Democrats. They planned to sabotage the proceedings.

German constitutional law stated that any change to the constitution had to have a vote at which 66% of the Reichstag Deputies had to be present. Of these the vote needed to be 66% or over – not the usual bare majority. The Social Democrats knew that if they boycotted the vote, there would not be the required 66% of Reichstag Deputies at the vote – therefore any result would be deemed unconstitutional. The Nazis got around this with ease. The President of the Reichstag was Hermann Goering. He introduced a new procedure that made irrelevant the proposed move of the Social Democrats. Goering’s new procedure was to deem present any Reichstag Deputy who was not at the session but who did not have a good reason not to be there. In fact, 26 Social Democrat Deputies were in hiding for their lives – but as they could not present to the Reichstag a good reason for not being there they were counted as present.

The final vote for the Enabling Act was 444 for and 94 against. All the constitutional criteria for Deputies being present were there and the Enabling Act was signed into law.

All those who voted against the act were Social Democrats – a brave thing to do when it is considered that the opera house was flooded with SA men who had a deserved reputation for being thugs. The party leader, Otto Wels, openly spoke out against the bill and called on others not to vote for it.

The Enabling Act allowed the Cabinet to introduce legislation without it first going through the Reichstag. Basically the Reichstag Deputies voted to allow themselves to be bypassed. Any legislation passed by the Cabinet did not need presidential approval either. The act had a lifespan of four years before it had to be renewed via the Reichstag – something that happened on two separate occasions with an even more Nazified Reichstag and with what was effectively open voting.

Just how significant was the Enabling Act? Shortly after the bill became law,Joseph Goebbels wrote that Hitler now had full power to push Germany forward. He made no mention of the Cabinet. In fact, there was no Cabinet input in the sense that a modern Cabinet would expect to function. For example, Hitler had given the Centre Party his full guarantee that their power would be protected if they supported the Enabling Act. On July 14th1933, all political parties other than the Nazi Party were banned on the orders of Hitler. It was generally thought that it took just 24 hours to put into legislation something that Hitler had ordered. The Enabling Act also protected the position of President. Such was Hitler’s power that when Hindenburg died in August 1934, he simply merged the positions of Chancellor and President and created the position of F?hrer even though interfering with the position of the President was not allowed even by the terms of the Enabling Act.