8 October 1982

Poland bans Solidarity and all other trade unions.

Solidarity, also known as “Solidarno??” in Polish, was a historic trade union and social movement in Poland that played a pivotal role in the country’s political and social transformation during the late 20th century.

Formation:
Solidarity was founded in August 1980 in the city of Gda?sk, Poland, during a wave of strikes at the Gda?sk Shipyard. It was led by Lech Wa??sa, a charismatic electrician and labor activist.
The movement emerged in response to the oppressive communist regime of the Polish People’s Republic, which was controlled by the Communist Party and backed by the Soviet Union.

Goals:
Solidarity aimed to advocate for workers’ rights, improved working conditions, and economic reforms in Poland.
Beyond its labor-focused goals, the movement also became a symbol of opposition to the authoritarian government and called for political change, democratization, and greater civil liberties.

Growth and Suppression:
Solidarity quickly gained widespread support across Poland, amassing millions of members and supporters. It evolved into a broad-based social and political movement.
In December 1981, in response to the growing influence of Solidarity and fearing a loss of control, the Polish government declared martial law, banned Solidarity, and arrested many of its leaders and activists.
Despite the crackdown, Solidarity remained active underground, with its members continuing to resist the regime’s policies.

Negotiations and Transformation:
Solidarity’s perseverance, along with international pressure and economic hardships, led to negotiations between the government and the opposition.
In 1989, the government agreed to hold semi-free elections. Solidarity participated in these elections and won a significant number of seats in the Polish parliament.
This marked the beginning of a peaceful transition towards democracy in Poland.

Post-Communist Era:
Following the 1989 elections, Poland experienced a period of political and economic transformation. Solidarity played a key role in shaping the country’s transition to a democratic and market-oriented system.
Lech Wa??sa was elected as the President of Poland in 1990, further solidifying Solidarity’s influence on the country’s direction.

Legacy:
Solidarity’s successful struggle against communist rule in Poland had a profound impact on other Eastern European countries facing similar challenges.
The movement became a symbol of peaceful resistance, democracy, and human rights and was recognized worldwide.
Solidarity remains an important historical and cultural symbol in Poland, and its legacy continues to influence Polish politics and society.

13 June 1982

Battles of Tumbledown and Wireless Ridge, during the Falklands War.

The Falklands War, also known as the Falklands Conflict or the Guerra de las Malvinas in Spanish, was a military conflict between Argentina and the United Kingdom that took place in 1982. It was fought over the control of the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands, which are a group of small islands located in the South Atlantic Ocean.

The roots of the conflict can be traced back to a long-standing territorial dispute between Argentina and the UK over the Falkland Islands. Argentina had claimed sovereignty over the islands since the 19th century, considering them an integral part of its territory. However, the UK maintained control over the islands and considered them a British overseas territory.

On April 2, 1982, Argentine forces, under the military junta led by General Leopoldo Galtieri, invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands, aiming to assert their territorial claim. The British government, led by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, viewed the invasion as a violation of international law and an attack on British territory. In response, the UK launched a military operation to retake the islands.

The British task force, consisting of naval vessels, submarines, and aircraft, set sail for the South Atlantic. The conflict involved both naval and air battles, as well as ground combat on the islands. The British forces faced significant logistical challenges in launching an operation thousands of miles away from home, but they managed to successfully retake the islands after intense fighting.

The war lasted for approximately 74 days, with the final Argentine surrender taking place on June 14, 1982. The conflict resulted in the deaths of 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, and three civilian Falkland Islanders. The sinking of the Argentine cruiser General Belgrano by a British submarine caused the highest number of casualties in a single incident during the war.

The Falklands War had significant political ramifications for both Argentina and the UK. In Argentina, the defeat led to the downfall of the military junta and the return to civilian rule. It also sparked a sense of nationalism and renewed interest in reclaiming the islands. In the UK, the victory boosted the popularity of the Conservative government under Margaret Thatcher and reaffirmed British sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.

Since the war, the sovereignty dispute between Argentina and the UK over the Falkland Islands has persisted, although diplomatic efforts have been made to find a peaceful resolution. The islands remain under British administration and are largely inhabited by people of British descent, but Argentina continues to assert its claim to the territory.

2 April 1982

Argentina invades the Falkland Islands.

The Falklands War was fought between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1982 over the disputed Falkland Islands, South Georgia, and South Sandwich Islands. The conflict lasted from April 2 to June 14, 1982.

In the end, the United Kingdom was victorious, and Argentina surrendered on June 14, 1982. The British forces recaptured the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and the conflict resulted in the deaths of 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, and three Falkland Islanders.