23 September 1905

Norway and Sweden sign the Karlstad Treaty, peacefully dissolving the Union between the two countries.

The dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden occurred in 1905 and is often referred to as the “Norwegian dissolution of union” or “Norwegian independence.” It marked the end of the political union that had existed between Norway and Sweden since 1814.

Union Background:
The union between Norway and Sweden began in 1814, following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna. Norway was transferred from Danish to Swedish control as part of a larger European settlement.
The union was, in many ways, unequal, with Sweden holding more political power and influence over Norway.

Growing Norwegian Dissatisfaction:
Over the years, Norwegians grew increasingly dissatisfied with the union, as they felt their own national identity was being suppressed by Swedish rule.
Calls for greater autonomy and independence became more pronounced in Norway during the 19th century.

The Union’s Weakening:
The union faced a significant challenge in 1905 when a dispute arose over the issue of Norway’s own consular service. Norway wanted its own consuls, separate from Sweden, to represent its interests abroad.
Negotiations between Norway and Sweden failed to resolve this issue, leading to a political crisis.

The Norwegian Independence Movement:
In response to the deadlock, Norway’s parliament (the Storting) declared the union with Sweden dissolved on June 7, 1905. This unilateral declaration was a bold move toward independence.
Prince Carl of Denmark (later known as King Haakon VII of Norway) was offered the Norwegian throne, and he accepted.

Peaceful Resolution:
The dissolution of the union was handled peacefully, and there was no armed conflict between Norway and Sweden.
The international community, particularly the great powers of Europe, supported Norway’s right to self-determination and independence.

Treaty of Karlstad:
On September 23, 1905, Norway and Sweden signed the Treaty of Karlstad, which recognized Norway’s independence and settled the terms of the dissolution.
The treaty established the borders between Norway and Sweden and included agreements on various practical matters, such as the division of assets and liabilities.

King Haakon VII:
King Haakon VII ascended to the Norwegian throne on November 18, 1905, marking the formal establishment of the Kingdom of Norway.

23 September 1932

The unification of Saudi Arabia is completed.

The history of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia begins properly on September 23, 1932, when by royal decree the dual kingdom of the Hejaz and Najd with its dependencies, administered since 1927 as two separate units, was unified under the name of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The chief immediate effect was to increase the unity of the kingdom and to decrease the possibility of Hejazi separatism, while the name underscored the central role of the royal family in the kingdom’s creation. No attempt was made to change the supreme authority of the king as the absolute monarch of the new regime; indeed, his power was emphasized in 1933 by his choice of his son Sa??d as heir apparent.

From the date of its establishment in September 1932, Saudi Arabia enjoyed full international recognition as an independent state, although it did not join the League of Nations.

In 1934 Ibn Sa??d was involved in war with Yemen over a boundary dispute. An additional cause of the war was Yemen’s support of an uprising by an Asiri prince against Ibn Sa??d. In a seven-week campaign, the Saudis were generally victorious. Hostilities were terminated by the Treaty of Al-???if, by which the Saudis gained the disputed district. Diplomatic relations with Egypt, severed in 1926 because of an incident on the Meccan pilgrimage, were not renewed until after the death of King Fu??d of Egypt in 1936.

Fixing the boundaries of the country remained a problem throughout the 1930s. In tribal society, sovereignty was traditionally expressed in the form of suzerainty over certain tribes rather than in fixed territorial boundaries. Hence, Ibn Sa??d regarded the demarcation of land frontiers with suspicion. Nevertheless, the majority of the frontiers with Iraq, Kuwait, and Jordan had been demarcated by 1930. In the south, no agreement was reached on the exact site of the frontiers with the Trucial States and with the interior of Yemen and Muscat and Oman.

After Saudi Arabia declared its neutrality during World War II (1939–45), Britain and the United States subsidized Saudi Arabia, which declared war on Germany in 1945, and this thus enabled the kingdom to enter the United Nations as a founding member. Ibn Sa??d also joined the Arab League, but he did not play a leading part in it, since the religious and conservative element in Saudi Arabia opposed cooperation with other Arab states, even when Saudis shared common views, as in opposition to Zionism. In the Arab-Israeli War of 1948, Saudi Arabia contributed only one battalion.

23 September 1980

Bob Marley plays his last concert in Pittsburgh.


On September 23, 1980 Bob Marley held a show in Pittsburgh at what was then known as The Stanley Theatre as part of the Uprising Tour in support of the album of the same name. The concert with his band The Wailers held at the venue currently called The Benedum Center for the Performing Arts 36 years ago today turned out to be last scheduled public concert performed by the reggae legend.

In town for shows at Madison Square Garden, Marley was jogging in New York City’s Central Park on September 21, 1980 when he collapsed, likely due to complications from the malignant melanoma cancer he was diagnosed with in 1977. Despite his apparent ill health just two days prior, Marley still performed in Pittsburgh on September 23rd with his band featuring bassist Aston Barrett, drummer Carlton Barrett, percussionist Alvin Patterson, keyboardists Earl Lindo and Tyrone Downie, guitarists Al Anderson and Junior Marvin and vocalists the I Threes – Judy Mowatt, Marcia Griffiths and Rita Marley.

Songs from Uprising including “Coming in from the Cold,” “Work,” “Could You Be Loved,” “Redemption Song” and “Zion Train” featured prominently that night, alongside such Marley classics as “Positive Vibration,” “No Woman, No Cry,” “Jamming,” “Exodus” and “Is This Love.” A recording of The Stanley Theatre concert was officially released as Live Forever: The Stanley Theatre, Pittsburgh, PA, September 23, 1980.

23 September 1980


Bob Marley plays his last concert in Pittsburgh.

Live Forever: The Stanley Theatre, Pittsburgh, PA, September 23, 1980 is a live album by Bob Marley & The Wailers released on 1 February 2011. The live album was recorded at Pittsburgh’s Stanley Theatre during the Uprising Tour to support their then latest album of the same name. This was Marley’s last concert before his death in 1981. Get Up Stand Up, Bob Marley’s last recorded song, was not found until 2000 by Bob Marley Archivists James Wilson and Jack Low. Two days before this concert, Marley collapsed while jogging in Central Park, New York. He had just played his biggest concerts ever, two sold-out shows at Madison Square Garden while nearly fainting. He was taken to the hospital where he was told he had a month to live because of a brain tumor and still despite his condition, he soldiered on to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania for what would turn out to be his last show.