5 July 1807

In Buenos Aires the local militias repel the British soldiers within the Second English Invasion.

The Second English Invasion occurred in 1807, following the first unsuccessful British attempt to seize control of Buenos Aires in 1806.

Background: The British sought to expand their influence and control in South America, particularly targeting the Spanish colonies. They believed the Spanish colonies were weak and could be easily taken over, and they hoped to open new markets for British goods.

First Invasion (1806): The British initially captured Buenos Aires in 1806, but local militias and Spanish forces managed to reclaim the city under the leadership of Santiago de Liniers.

Second Invasion (1807): The British launched a second invasion in 1807. This time, they faced even more organized and determined resistance from the local population and militias.

Repulsion of British Forces: The British landed a substantial force and managed to capture Montevideo. However, when they advanced on Buenos Aires, they encountered fierce resistance. The local militias, under the command of Santiago de Liniers and local leaders like Martín de Álzaga, engaged in street-to-street fighting.

Outcome: The British forces were eventually defeated and forced to retreat. This victory was a significant morale boost for the local population and helped foster a sense of unity and resistance against foreign invaders.

5 July 1975

Arthur Ashe becomes the first black man to win the Wimbledon singles title.

Arthur Ashe was famous for being an American professional tennis player. He achieved numerous significant milestones in his career and became an iconic figure both on and off the tennis court.
Ashe won three Grand Slam singles titles during his career. He became the first African American male player to win the U.S. Open in 1968, and he also won the Australian Open in 1970 and Wimbledon in 1975.
Ashe was known for his advocacy of civil rights and social justice causes. He was actively involved in promoting racial equality and fought against apartheid in South Africa. Ashe used his platform as a prominent athlete to raise awareness about various issues and inspire positive change.
Ashe was committed to philanthropic work and established the Arthur Ashe Foundation for the Defeat of AIDS. The foundation aimed to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS and provide support for those affected by the disease.
After retiring from professional tennis, Ashe worked as a tennis commentator for ABC Sports and wrote articles for various publications. He also authored several books, including his memoir titled “Days of Grace.”
In recognition of his achievements, Ashe was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1985. He remains one of the most respected and celebrated figures in the history of the sport.

5 July 1934

“Bloody Thursday”: Police open fire on striking longshoremen in San Francisco.
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5 July 1946

The bikini first goes on sale after debuting during an outdoor fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris, France.

On July 5, 1946, French designer Louis Reard unveils a daring two-piece swimsuit at the Piscine Molitor, a popular swimming pool in Paris. Parisian showgirl Micheline Bernardini modeled the new fashion, which Reard dubbed “bikini,” inspired by a news-making U.S. atomic test that took place off the Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean earlier that week.

European women first began wearing two-piece bathing suits that consisted of a halter top and shorts in the 1930s, but only a sliver of the midriff was revealed and the navel was vigilantly covered. In the United States, the modest two-piece made its appearance during World War II, when wartime rationing of fabric saw the removal of the skirt panel and other superfluous material. Meanwhile, in Europe, fortified coastlines and Allied invasions curtailed beach life during the war, and swimsuit development, like everything else non-military, came to a standstill.

In 1946, Western Europeans joyously greeted the first war-free summer in years, and French designers came up with fashions to match the liberated mood of the people. Two French designers, Jacques Heim and Louis Reard, developed competing prototypes of the bikini. Heim called his the “atom” and advertised it as “the world’s smallest bathing suit.” Reard’s swimsuit, which was basically a bra top and two inverted triangles of cloth connected by string, was in fact significantly smaller. Made out of a scant 30 inches of fabric, Reard promoted his creation as “smaller than the world’s smallest bathing suit.” Reard called his creation the bikini, named after the Bikini Atoll.

In planning the debut of his new swimsuit, Reard had trouble finding a professional model who would deign to wear the scandalously skimpy two-piece. So he turned to Micheline Bernardini, an exotic dancer at the Casino de Paris, who had no qualms about appearing nearly nude in public. As an allusion to the headlines that he knew his swimsuit would generate, he printed newspaper type across the suit that Bernardini modeled on July 5 at the Piscine Molitor. The bikini was a hit, especially among men, and Bernardini received some 50,000 fan letters.

Before long, bold young women in bikinis were causing a sensation along the Mediterranean coast. Spain and Italy passed measures prohibiting bikinis on public beaches but later capitulated to the changing times when the swimsuit grew into a mainstay of European beaches in the 1950s. Reard’s business soared, and in advertisements he kept the bikini mystique alive by declaring that a two-piece suit wasn’t a genuine bikini “unless it could be pulled through a wedding ring.”

In prudish America, the bikini was successfully resisted until the early 1960s, when a new emphasis on youthful liberation brought the swimsuit en masse to U.S. beaches. It was immortalized by the pop singer Brian Hyland, who sang “Itsy Bitsy Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka-Dot Bikini” in 1960, by the teenage “beach blanket” movies of Annette Funicello and Frankie Avalon, and by the California surfing culture celebrated by rock groups like the Beach Boys. Since then, the popularity of the bikini has only continued to grow.

5 July 1811

Venezuela declares independence from Spain and on 5 July 1884, Germany takes possession of Cameroon.


The Venezuelan Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by a congress of Venezuelan provinces on July 5, 1811, through which Venezuelans made the decision to separate from the Spanish Crown in order to establish a new nation based on the premises of equality of individuals, abolition of censorship and dedication to freedom of expression. These principles were enshrined as a constitutional principal for the new nation and were radically opposed to the political, cultural, and social practices that had existed during three hundred years of colonization.

Seven of the ten provinces belonging to the Captaincy General of Venezuela declared their independence and explained their reasons for this action, among them, that it was baneful that a small European nation ruled the great expanses of the New World, that Spanish America recovered its right to self-government after the abdications of Charles IV and Ferdinand VII at Bayonne, and that the political instability in Spain dictated that Venezuelans rule themselves, despite the brotherhood they shared with Spaniards. The seven provinces were Caracas Province, Cumaná Province, Barinas Province, Margarita Province, Barcelona Province, Mérida Province and Trujillo Province.

The declaration proclaimed a new nation called the American Confederacy of Venezuela and was mainly written by Cristóbal Mendoza and Juan Germán Roscio. It was ratified by Congress on July 7, 1811, and recorded in the Congress’s Book of Minutes on August 17, 1811, in Caracas.