8 October 1982

Poland bans Solidarity and all other trade unions.

Solidarity, also known as “Solidarno??” in Polish, was a historic trade union and social movement in Poland that played a pivotal role in the country’s political and social transformation during the late 20th century.

Solidarity was founded in August 1980 in the city of Gda?sk, Poland, during a wave of strikes at the Gda?sk Shipyard. It was led by Lech Wa??sa, a charismatic electrician and labor activist.
The movement emerged in response to the oppressive communist regime of the Polish People’s Republic, which was controlled by the Communist Party and backed by the Soviet Union.

Solidarity aimed to advocate for workers’ rights, improved working conditions, and economic reforms in Poland.
Beyond its labor-focused goals, the movement also became a symbol of opposition to the authoritarian government and called for political change, democratization, and greater civil liberties.

Growth and Suppression:
Solidarity quickly gained widespread support across Poland, amassing millions of members and supporters. It evolved into a broad-based social and political movement.
In December 1981, in response to the growing influence of Solidarity and fearing a loss of control, the Polish government declared martial law, banned Solidarity, and arrested many of its leaders and activists.
Despite the crackdown, Solidarity remained active underground, with its members continuing to resist the regime’s policies.

Negotiations and Transformation:
Solidarity’s perseverance, along with international pressure and economic hardships, led to negotiations between the government and the opposition.
In 1989, the government agreed to hold semi-free elections. Solidarity participated in these elections and won a significant number of seats in the Polish parliament.
This marked the beginning of a peaceful transition towards democracy in Poland.

Post-Communist Era:
Following the 1989 elections, Poland experienced a period of political and economic transformation. Solidarity played a key role in shaping the country’s transition to a democratic and market-oriented system.
Lech Wa??sa was elected as the President of Poland in 1990, further solidifying Solidarity’s influence on the country’s direction.

Solidarity’s successful struggle against communist rule in Poland had a profound impact on other Eastern European countries facing similar challenges.
The movement became a symbol of peaceful resistance, democracy, and human rights and was recognized worldwide.
Solidarity remains an important historical and cultural symbol in Poland, and its legacy continues to influence Polish politics and society.

8 October 1813

The Treaty of Ried is signed between Bavaria and Austria.

The Treaty of Ried of 8 October 1813 was a treaty that was signed between Bavaria and Austria. By this treaty, Bavaria left the Confederation of the Rhine and agreed to join the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon in exchange for a guarantee of her continued sovereign and independent status.

On 14 October, Bavaria made a formal declaration of war against Napoleonic France. The treaty was passionately backed by the Crown Prince Louis and by Marshal von Wrede.

8 October 1982

The musical ‘Cats’ opens on Broadway and runs for nearly 18 years before it closes on September 10 2000.


Randy Rum Tum Tugger will have given his pelvis a last few thrusts at a tourist, the giant boot will have flopped into the alleyway one last time, Mungojerrie and Rumpleteazer will have executed their last calisthenic tumbles, Macavity won’t have been there for a final caper, Old Deuteronomy will have chatted with his last youngster, and Grizabella will have warbled her last “Memory.” The invited guests will file out off to a celebratory party most of them. There’ll be speeches, glasses raised, fireworks across the water, and then there’ll be silence.

What else can there be after a Broadway show runs nearly 18 years, more than three years longer than the nearest competitor? What’s left after 7,485 performances, seven Tonys, and the distinction of having been seen by more than 10 million people? Even critics who hate the show, even pundits who’ve watched the production’s original style and vision become dated in comparison to two decades’ worth of new musical frontiers, even producers who’ve prayed for flashy mega-musicals to ease their stranglehold on big theatres so a new stream of productions can have a place to play, even audiences who come out of the Winter Garden Theatre thinking, “so that was it?” all are no doubt feeling a little sad today, a little in awe, a little crestfallen that a chapter of Broadway lore has been sealed and tucked away:

Cats is closing. It really is closing. And Broadway will never be the same. In mid-February, the producers of Cats told the world the musical would close June 25, after 7,397 performances at the Winter Garden Theatre. An outpouring of media coverage, fan sentiment and heightened ticket sales ensued. Since the announcement, in fact, grosses have regularly leapt past the $500,000 per week mark, with the week ending Aug. 27 a case in point. Cats was therefore given an extra eleven weeks to live, with the Sept. 9 evening show the last available to the general public, and the Sept. 10, 6 PM, invitation-only show the last ever.