25 December 800

The coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome

Charlemagne, also known as Charles the Great, was a medieval ruler who became the first Holy Roman Emperor. He was born around April 2, 747, and died on January 28, 814. Charlemagne was a Frankish king and a member of the Carolingian dynasty, which played a crucial role in European history during the early Middle Ages.

Rise to Power:
Charlemagne became King of the Franks in 768, following the death of his father, Pepin the Short. After the death of his brother Carloman in 771, Charlemagne became the sole ruler of the Frankish Kingdom.

Military Campaigns:
Charlemagne expanded his kingdom through a series of military campaigns. His reign saw the Carolingian Empire reach its height, covering modern-day France, Germany, the Low Countries, Switzerland, and parts of Italy and Austria.

Coronation as Emperor:
On December 25, 800, Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III in Rome. This event marked the revival of the Western Roman Empire in the form of the Holy Roman Empire, a political entity that endured until 1806.

Intellectual and Cultural Achievements:
Charlemagne played a significant role in the Carolingian Renaissance, a revival of art, culture, and learning. He promoted education and had a keen interest in scholarship. He established a palace school at Aachen, where scholars such as Alcuin of York contributed to the intellectual revival.

Legal and Administrative Reforms:
Charlemagne implemented administrative and legal reforms to strengthen the central authority of his empire. The most famous of these reforms was the Capitulary for the Missi, which aimed to ensure justice and order throughout the realm.

Relationship with the Church:
Charlemagne maintained a close relationship with the Catholic Church. His alliance with the papacy and the coronation by the Pope solidified the connection between secular and religious authority in medieval Europe.

Charlemagne is remembered as one of the most influential figures of the Middle Ages. His efforts to unite Western Europe and his support for learning and culture left a lasting impact. The Holy Roman Empire, although evolving over time, became a key political entity in European history.