11 September 1941

Construction begins on The Pentagon.

The Pentagon, officially known as the “Pentagon Building,” is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense and is located in Arlington, Virginia, just across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. It is one of the most iconic and recognizable government buildings in the world.

Construction: The Pentagon was designed by American architect George Bergstrom and construction began on September 11, 1941. It was completed in just over a year, with the formal dedication taking place on January 15, 1943. The building’s construction was fast-tracked due to the United States’ involvement in World War II.

Architecture: The Pentagon’s distinctive five-sided, five-story design was chosen partly because of the shape of the site it was built on and also to maximize the use of available space. It features a central courtyard and five concentric rings of office space, connected by a vast network of corridors.

Size: The Pentagon is one of the largest office buildings in the world, with a total floor area of approximately 6.5 million square feet (roughly 604,000 square meters). It houses approximately 23,000 military and civilian employees, making it one of the largest office buildings by workforce.

Purpose: The primary purpose of the Pentagon is to serve as the headquarters for the United States Department of Defense. It houses the top leadership and military staff responsible for the planning, coordination, and execution of the country’s defense and military operations.

Security: Due to its importance and sensitive nature, the Pentagon has stringent security measures in place. Access to certain areas of the building is restricted, and security personnel and protocols are employed to ensure the safety of the facility.

Symbolism: The Pentagon has become a symbol of the U.S. military and its role in national defense. It is often featured in news broadcasts and films, and its distinctive shape is easily recognizable.

9/11 Attacks: On September 11, 2001, the Pentagon was the target of a terrorist attack when American Airlines Flight 77 was hijacked by terrorists and crashed into the western side of the building. The attack resulted in a significant loss of life and extensive damage to the building. Reconstruction efforts were swift, and the damaged section was rebuilt and reopened within a year.

Tours: While the Pentagon is primarily a government and military facility, it does offer guided tours to the public. These tours provide visitors with an opportunity to learn about the history and functions of the Pentagon.

11 September 2008

A major Channel Tunnel fire breaks out on a freight train, resulting in the closure of part of the tunnel for six months.

When a fire closed the Channel Tunnel in 11 September 2008, the struggling operator Eurotunnel no doubt consoled itself with one thought: its insurers would pay up. More than two years and a half years later, however, Eurotunnel remains embroiled in a legal battle with the train operators that use its infrastructure between Britain and the Continent.

Consequently, like any punter kept waiting for their car or contents insurer to pay out, Eurotunnel – the operator of the 30-mile road and rail link – is feeling the financial pain of a delay in receiving one of the biggest ever corporate insurance payouts. Yesterday, the rail operator swung to a €57m loss for 2010, compared with a profit of €7m the previous year, and it blamed its woes firmly on the “freezing of €59m of indemnities”, although it was paid €11m of this in February.

However, what makes the dispute more colourful is that this freezing is the result of the rail operators who use the tunnel, Eurostar and SNCF, lodging a claim in 2009 against the same insurance claim lodged by Eurotunnel itself, instead of seeking indemnities through their own insurers. In simple terms, Eurostar and SNCF sought compensation from an insurance policy that they were not even paying for.

While Eurostar declined to comment on the matter, an extract from Eurotunnel’s 2009 accounts suggests that it and SNCF felt that because the fire resulted in disruption to their businesses from an incident outside the remit of their own insurance policies, they should lodge a claim for compensation with Eurotunnel’s insurers.

In the report, the tunnel operator said: “Eurotunnel’s insurers have received from the railways a claim for compensation relating to the fire on 11 September 2008 in respect of their own operating losses, as the railways consider that Eurotunnel’s insurers should also compensate them for their operating losses following the fire.”

Certainly, it is fair to say that Eurotunnel probably did not expect to be facing a legal battle so long after the fire in September 2008, which led to it closing one-sixth of the tunnel for about five months. Eurotunnel has put the total cost of the damage caused by the fire at about €290m, including the rebuilding of the affected tunnel, compensation for the loss of an entire freight train, and its operating losses.

After Eurostar lodged its claim in May 2009 at a commercial court in Paris, the French court froze the part of the process relating to the outstanding indemnity of €48m. Jacques Gounon, the chairman of Eurotunnel, said: “The delay in payment of the insurance indemnities has impacted heavily on our net result but the group is working to rectify this situation.”

Eurotunnel said the €57m loss in 2010 was due to the absence of insurance payouts, as well as €4.5m linked to the reconditioning of a shuttle.

Aside from the insurance dispute, Eurotunnel said its revenues rose by 26 per cent to €737m last year. Stripping out the financial impact of its insurance battles, it expects to break even this year. The number of Eurostar passengers grew by 3 per cent to 9.5m in 2010.

Eurotunnel’s path to reinvention has been long and tortuous, with the trouble starting almost as soon as the company was formed in 1986.

Delays and disputes with contractors pushed the tunnel’s opening date back from May 1993 to November 1994, and the cost ballooned from £4.7bn to £9.5bn, of which an eye-watering £8bn was debt.

11 September 2008

A major fire in Channel Tunnel broke out on a freight train. Part of the tunnel is closed for 6 months.


Firefighters endured extreme temperatures and cramped quarters as they extinguished an intense blaze in the undersea train tunnel that has revolutionized travel between France and England.

The fire deep under the English Channel left the British Isles cut off for more than a day from continental Europe other than by sea or air – the only routes that existed before the undersea tunnel opened to passengers in 1994.

Laboring through the night, firefighters painstakingly worked toward each other from separate ends in France and Britain to combat the blaze, which broke out Thursday afternoon aboard one of the trains that whiz back and forth through the 30-mile tunnel, transporting trucks and holidaymakers’ cars.

Firefighters spent no more than 15 minutes at a time inside the tunnel, because of the intense temperatures of up to around 1,830 degrees. The blaze was declared extinguished around midday.

Five of 14 people injured remained in hospitals Friday, said prosecutor Gerald Lesigne, who was investigating the blaze. Officials said some people had inhaled large quantities of smoke; others hurt their hands by breaking the train’s windows to escape.

Officials appeared to rule out terrorism as a cause of the blaze, one of the most serious incidents in the history of the tunnel that has made day trips between Paris and London possible by high-speed train.

The fire was in the tunnel that runs from England to France. Its burned sections could be closed for weeks.The tunnel has had a few fires in the past, including one in 1996 that shut freight traffic for months.

People suffered smoke inhalation injuries because they evacuated the train themselves before tunnel operators had ventilated away the smoke, as safety procedures call for.

11 September 2001

Two hijacked aircraft crash into the World Trade Center in New York City, while a third smashes into The Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and a fourth into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, in a series of coordinated suicide attacks by 19 members of al-Qaeda. In total 2,996 people are killed.