4 March 1794

The 11th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is passed by the U.S. Congress.

The 11th Amendment to the United States Constitution was passed by Congress on March 4, 1794, and ratified by the states on February 7, 1795. It consists of a single sentence and addresses the issue of sovereign immunity, particularly in regard to lawsuits against states.

Text of the 11th Amendment:

“The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.”

This amendment was largely a response to the Supreme Court case Chisholm v. Georgia (1793), in which the Court ruled that a citizen of one state could sue another state in federal court. This decision alarmed many states, fearing that it would expose them to excessive litigation and financial liability.

The 11th Amendment effectively overruled the Chisholm decision by preventing citizens from suing states in federal court. It establishes the principle of sovereign immunity, which protects states from being sued without their consent. However, it’s important to note that this immunity is not absolute and has been subject to interpretation and exceptions by the courts over time.

17th September 1794

The Battle of Sprimont takes place.


The Battle of Sprimont, Battle of Esneux or Battle of the Ourthe was a battle between French Republican and Austrian troops on the plateau between the valleys of the Vesdre, the Ourthe and the Amblève, 20 kilometres (12 mi) south of Liège. It occurred on 17 and 18 September 1794 and was a French Republican victory. The battle put a final end to the Ancien Régime in what is now Belgium, then essentially the Austrian Netherlands, Principality of Liège and the Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy.

French troops dislodged Austrian troops occupying the plateau, though the French suffered heavy losses. Associated with the battle are the villages of Sprimont, Esneux, Fontin and the site of the La Redoute, whose name originates in a redoubt involved in the battle.