15 May 1905

The city of Las Vegas is founded in Nevada, United States.

Las Vegas, known for its vibrant nightlife and sprawling casinos, has a rich and colorful history that shaped it into the entertainment capital of the world.

Las Vegas, which means “The Meadows” in Spanish, was named by Rafael Rivera in 1829. This area was a lush oasis with abundant water, which made it a vital stopover on the old Spanish trail to California. The land was part of Mexico until it became part of the United States in 1848 after the Mexican-American War.

In 1905, Las Vegas was officially founded as a city when 110 acres of what would later become downtown were auctioned off. The arrival of the railroad connected Las Vegas with major cities in the Pacific and the rest of the country, boosting the economy and population growth.

The legalization of gambling in 1931 was a turning point for Las Vegas. This coincided with the construction of the Hoover Dam, which brought an influx of workers to the area. The first casino on what would become the Las Vegas Strip, the El Rancho Vegas, opened in 1941. It was soon followed by other casinos and hotels, fueled by the investment from figures such as Bugsy Siegel who opened the Flamingo in 1946.

The post-World War II era marked a boom in construction and the arrival of organized crime figures, which shaped the Las Vegas image as a city run by mobsters. During the 1950s and 1960s, iconic casinos like the Sands, the Sahara, and the Tropicana were built. Entertainment became as much of a draw as the gambling, with top performers like Elvis Presley, Frank Sinatra, and the Rat Pack gracing the stages.

The 1980s and 1990s saw a shift from mob control to more corporate management of casinos, heralded by figures like Steve Wynn. This period featured the development of mega-resorts like The Mirage (1989), Bellagio, and The Venetian, transforming the landscape and economy of Las Vegas once again.

In the 21st century, Las Vegas continues to evolve, with a focus on expanding the entertainment offerings beyond gambling. This includes world-class dining, shopping, and entertainment options. The city has also become a hub for business conventions and a popular destination for global tourism.

Las Vegas’ history reflects its status as a city that constantly reinvents itself, making it a unique and dynamic destination with a legacy of continual transformation.

22 January 1905

Bloody Sunday in Saint Petersburg, beginning of the 1905 revolution.

Bloody Sunday in Saint Petersburg, which occurred on January 9, 1905 (Julian calendar; January 22, 1905, Gregorian calendar), was a pivotal event that marked the beginning of the 1905 Russian Revolution. It was a turning point in the tensions between the Russian people and the autocratic rule of Tsar Nicholas II.

The immediate cause of Bloody Sunday was a peaceful protest march organized by Father Georgy Gapon, a Russian Orthodox priest and a leader of the Assembly of Russian Factory and Mill Workers of St. Petersburg. The workers and their families were seeking better working conditions, higher wages, and political reforms, including a constitution and the establishment of a parliament.

As the demonstrators approached the Winter Palace, the residence of the Tsar, they carried icons and portraits of the Tsar, hoping to appeal to his sense of justice. However, their peaceful intentions were met with brutal force. The Imperial Guard and other military units stationed in the area opened fire on the unarmed protesters, resulting in hundreds of deaths and even more injuries.

The violence of Bloody Sunday shocked the nation and led to widespread protests, strikes, and unrest across Russia. Workers, peasants, and various social groups joined forces in expressing their dissatisfaction with the autocratic regime. The 1905 Revolution became a series of uprisings and strikes that spread throughout the country, with workers demanding better conditions and political reforms, and different ethnic and social groups expressing their grievances.

In response to the mounting pressure, Tsar Nicholas II issued the October Manifesto on October 17, 1905. The manifesto promised civil liberties, including the establishment of an elected legislative body (the Duma) with real legislative power. While the reforms did not fully satisfy all segments of the population, they marked a significant concession by the Tsar and temporarily quelled the revolutionary fervor.

Bloody Sunday and the events that followed in 1905 laid the groundwork for future revolutionary movements in Russia, including the more significant and successful 1917 Russian Revolution, which eventually led to the establishment of the Soviet Union.

18 November 1905

Prince Carl of Denmark becomes King Haakon VII of Norway.

King Haakon VII of Norway, born Prince Carl of Denmark, was the first monarch of Norway following its declaration of independence from Sweden in 1905.

Birth and Early Life:
Haakon VII was born as Prince Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel on August 3, 1872, in Charlottenlund Palace, Denmark.
He was the second son of King Frederick VIII of Denmark and Princess Louise of Denmark.

Selection as Norwegian King:
In 1905, when Norway sought to dissolve the union with Sweden and become an independent kingdom, the Norwegian government offered the throne to Prince Carl of Denmark.
The Norwegian people voted in a referendum in favor of establishing a monarchy, and Prince Carl accepted the offer.

Name Change:
Upon his accession to the Norwegian throne on November 18, 1905, Prince Carl took the Norwegian name Haakon and became King Haakon VII.

Role During World War II:
King Haakon VII played a crucial symbolic role during the German occupation of Norway in World War II. When the Germans invaded Norway in 1940, the Norwegian government and royal family fled to London.
King Haakon became a symbol of Norwegian resistance, and his refusal to collaborate with the Nazi regime boosted the morale of the Norwegian people.

Return to Norway:
After the liberation of Norway in 1945, King Haakon returned to Oslo amid great celebrations. His return marked the restoration of the Norwegian monarchy and the continuity of the constitutional monarchy.

Constitutional Monarch:
Throughout his reign, King Haakon VII adhered to the constitutional principles of Norway, which limited the monarch’s powers. He respected the democratic institutions and played a largely ceremonial and symbolic role.

Death and Legacy:
King Haakon VII reigned until his death on September 21, 1957.
His son, Olav V, succeeded him as the King of Norway.
King Haakon VII is remembered for his role in Norway’s transition to independence, his steadfast resistance against the German occupation during World War II, and his contributions to the stability and continuity of the Norwegian monarchy.

23 September 1905

Norway and Sweden sign the Karlstad Treaty, peacefully dissolving the Union between the two countries.

The dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden occurred in 1905 and is often referred to as the “Norwegian dissolution of union” or “Norwegian independence.” It marked the end of the political union that had existed between Norway and Sweden since 1814.

Union Background:
The union between Norway and Sweden began in 1814, following the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna. Norway was transferred from Danish to Swedish control as part of a larger European settlement.
The union was, in many ways, unequal, with Sweden holding more political power and influence over Norway.

Growing Norwegian Dissatisfaction:
Over the years, Norwegians grew increasingly dissatisfied with the union, as they felt their own national identity was being suppressed by Swedish rule.
Calls for greater autonomy and independence became more pronounced in Norway during the 19th century.

The Union’s Weakening:
The union faced a significant challenge in 1905 when a dispute arose over the issue of Norway’s own consular service. Norway wanted its own consuls, separate from Sweden, to represent its interests abroad.
Negotiations between Norway and Sweden failed to resolve this issue, leading to a political crisis.

The Norwegian Independence Movement:
In response to the deadlock, Norway’s parliament (the Storting) declared the union with Sweden dissolved on June 7, 1905. This unilateral declaration was a bold move toward independence.
Prince Carl of Denmark (later known as King Haakon VII of Norway) was offered the Norwegian throne, and he accepted.

Peaceful Resolution:
The dissolution of the union was handled peacefully, and there was no armed conflict between Norway and Sweden.
The international community, particularly the great powers of Europe, supported Norway’s right to self-determination and independence.

Treaty of Karlstad:
On September 23, 1905, Norway and Sweden signed the Treaty of Karlstad, which recognized Norway’s independence and settled the terms of the dissolution.
The treaty established the borders between Norway and Sweden and included agreements on various practical matters, such as the division of assets and liabilities.

King Haakon VII:
King Haakon VII ascended to the Norwegian throne on November 18, 1905, marking the formal establishment of the Kingdom of Norway.

30 April 1905

Albert Einstein completes his doctoral thesis at the University of Zurich.

Albert Einstein’s doctoral thesis, which he completed in 1905 at the age of 26, was titled “A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions.” The thesis was submitted to the University of Zurich and was later published as a paper in the Annalen der Physik (Annals of Physics) journal.

In his thesis, Einstein developed a new method for calculating the size of molecules in a liquid by analyzing how they scatter light. This method, known as “Einstein’s theory of Brownian motion,” provided a way to experimentally verify the existence of atoms and molecules, which had previously been debated among scientists.

The theory of Brownian motion played a crucial role in the development of modern physics and chemistry, and it remains an important topic of study to this day. Einstein’s thesis marked the beginning of his scientific career and laid the groundwork for his future groundbreaking work, including the development of the theory of relativity.