11 July 1922

The Hollywood Bowl opens.

The Hollywood Bowl is an iconic amphitheater located in Los Angeles, California. Known for its distinctive bandshell, the venue has been a central part of the city’s cultural life since it opened in 1922.

Architecture and Design: The Hollywood Bowl is famous for its shell-shaped design, which provides excellent acoustics and a visually striking backdrop for performances. The shell has undergone several redesigns over the years, with the current version designed by Frank Gehry.

Location: It is situated in the Hollywood Hills, offering scenic views of the surrounding area. The Bowl’s setting in a natural amphitheater contributes to its excellent sound quality.

Events and Performances: The Hollywood Bowl hosts a wide range of events, including concerts, theatrical performances, and community events. It is particularly known for its summer concert series, which features performances by the Los Angeles Philharmonic, as well as popular music concerts spanning various genres.

Historical Significance: Over the years, the Hollywood Bowl has hosted many legendary performers, including The Beatles, Frank Sinatra, Ella Fitzgerald, and more. It has become a symbol of Los Angeles’ rich musical heritage.

Cultural Impact: The venue is a beloved cultural institution in Los Angeles and attracts visitors from around the world. It is also known for its picnic tradition, where attendees bring food and drinks to enjoy before and during performances.

28 October 1922

Italian fascists led by Benito Mussolini march on Rome and take over the Italian government.

On October 28, 1922, Benito Mussolini and his Fascist Party staged the “March on Rome,” a significant event in Italian history that marked the beginning of Mussolini’s rise to power and the establishment of a Fascist regime in Italy.

Mussolini had been the leader of the National Fascist Party, which was a far-right political organization that advocated for authoritarian rule and the creation of a totalitarian state in Italy. In the early 1920s, Italy was experiencing significant social and political unrest, with strikes, demonstrations, and violence becoming increasingly common. Mussolini and his Blackshirt paramilitary squads took advantage of this chaos to push for power.

The March on Rome was not a violent coup but rather a show of strength and intimidation. Tens of thousands of Blackshirts gathered in various Italian cities and then converged on the capital, Rome, demanding that King Victor Emmanuel III appoint Mussolini as the Prime Minister. The king, facing pressure and fearing potential civil war, acquiesced to their demands and invited Mussolini to form a government.

On October 29, 1922, Mussolini was officially appointed as Prime Minister. This marked the beginning of the Fascist regime in Italy, which would become increasingly authoritarian and repressive over the years. Mussolini’s rule as Il Duce (The Leader) saw the suppression of political opposition, censorship of the media, and the gradual establishment of a totalitarian state. The Fascist regime under Mussolini remained in power until Italy’s defeat in World War II in 1943.

Mussolini’s rise to power and the establishment of Fascist rule in Italy had a significant impact not only on Italy but also on the course of world history, as Italy eventually aligned itself with Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan in the Axis Powers during World War II. Mussolini’s rule came to an end in 1943, when he was arrested and imprisoned. His legacy remains highly controversial, with some regarding him as a nationalistic hero and others as a brutal dictator.

11 July 1922

The Hollywood Bowl opens.

The Hollywood Bowl is a famous outdoor amphitheater located in Los Angeles, California. It is known for its distinctive bandshell, set against the backdrop of the scenic Hollywood Hills. The venue has a rich history and is one of the most iconic and beloved performance spaces in the United States.

The Hollywood Bowl was designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright’s son, Lloyd Wright, along with the sculptor George Stanley. It opened on July 11, 1922, and since then, it has been hosting a wide range of musical performances, including orchestral concerts, popular music concerts, and special events.

The bowl-shaped amphitheater has a seating capacity of approximately 17,500 people, making it one of the largest natural outdoor amphitheaters in the world. In addition to the seating area, the Hollywood Bowl also features picnic grounds where visitors can enjoy pre-concert meals and gatherings.

The Hollywood Bowl is primarily known for its summer concert series, which runs from June to September each year. The series features performances by the Los Angeles Philharmonic, one of the most renowned orchestras in the world, as well as guest artists and musicians from various genres.

Over the years, the Hollywood Bowl has hosted numerous legendary artists and bands, including The Beatles, Frank Sinatra, Ella Fitzgerald, Judy Garland, Luciano Pavarotti, and many more. It has also been a popular venue for film screenings with live orchestral accompaniment, allowing audiences to experience classic movies in a unique and immersive way.

Apart from its musical performances, the Hollywood Bowl also offers stunning views of the surrounding area. The venue’s location in the Hollywood Hills provides a picturesque backdrop of the cityscape, especially during evening performances when the city lights illuminate the skyline.

In recent years, the Hollywood Bowl has undergone several renovations and improvements to enhance the audience experience. These include upgrades to the sound system, stage, and seating areas, ensuring that visitors can enjoy exceptional acoustics and comfort during concerts.

31 October 1922

Benito Mussolini is made Prime Minister of Italy

Benito Mussolini was an Italian political leader who became the fascist dictator of Italy from 1925 to 1945. Originally a revolutionary socialist, he forged the paramilitary fascist movement in 1919 and became prime minister in 1922. Called “Il Duce”  by his countrymen, Mussolini allied himself with Adolf Hitler, relying on the German dictator to prop up his leadership during World War II, but he was killed shortly after the German surrender in Italy in 1945.

Born on July 29, 1883, in Verano di Costa, Italy, Mussolini was the son of blacksmith and ardent socialist Alessandro Mussolini and a devout Catholic mother, Rosa Maltoni. By most accounts, Mussolini’s family lived in simple, small quarters.

Young Mussolini was expelled from his first boarding school at age 10 for stabbing a fellow student. At 14, he stabbed another student but was only suspended.

Much of Mussolini’s early adulthood was spent traveling around Switzerland, getting involved with that country’s Socialist Party and clashing with police. In 1909, he moved to Austria-Hungary to become editor of a socialist newspaper, but was deported back to Italy, accused of violating laws meant to regulate press freedom.

3 April 1922

Joseph Stalin becomes the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Joseph Stalin was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union’s Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. In the years following the death of Vladimir Lenin in 1924, Stalin rose to become the leader of the Soviet Union.

After growing up in Georgia, Stalin conducted discreet activities for the Bolshevik Party for twelve years before the Russian Revolution of 1917. Following the October Revolution, Stalin took military positions in the Russian Civil War and the Polish-Soviet War. Stalin was one of the Bolsheviks’ chief operatives in the Caucasus and grew close to Lenin, who saw him as a tough character, and a loyal follower capable of getting things done behind the scenes. Stalin played a decisive role in engineering the 1921 Red Army invasion of Georgia, adopting a particularly hardline approach to opposition.

Stalin’s connections helped him to gain influential positions behind the scenes in the new Soviet government, eventually being appointed General Secretary in 1922. In 1922, a stroke forced Lenin into semi-retirement, while Lenin grew critical of Stalin in late 1922 and early 1923, recommending Stalin’s dismissal from the post of General Secretary. However, a very debilitating stroke in March 1923 ended Lenin’s political career. In the years following, opponents of Stalin, most notably Leon Trotsky, became isolated politically and were sidelined from the government by Stalin. Eventually, this led Stalin to become the uncontested highest leader of the Party and the Soviet Union.

31 October 1922

Benito Mussolini is made Prime Minister of Italy.


Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician, journalist and leader of the National Fascist Party ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943—constitutionally until 1925, when he dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a legal dictatorship.

Known as “The Leader”, Mussolini was the founder of Italian Fascism. In 1912, Mussolini was a leading member of the National Directorate of the Italian Socialist Party but was expelled from the PSI for advocating military intervention in World War I, in opposition to the party’s stance on neutrality. Mussolini served in the Royal Italian Army during the war until he was wounded and discharged in 1917. Mussolini denounced the PSI, his views now centering on nationalism instead of socialism and later founded the fascist movement which came to oppose egalitarianism and class conflict, instead advocating revolutionary nationalism transcending class lines. Following the March on Rome in October 1922, Mussolini became the youngest Prime Minister in Italian history until the appointment of Matteo Renzi in February 2014.

After removing all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes, Mussolini and his followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship. Within five years, Mussolini had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means and aspired to create a totalitarian state. Mussolini remained in power until he was deposed by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1943, but a few months later he became the leader of the Italian Social Republic, a German client regime in northern Italy – Mussolini held this post until his death in 1945.

Mussolini had sought to delay a major war in Europe until at least 1942,but Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939. This resulted in declarations of war by France and the UK and the start of World War II. On 10 June 1940—with the Fall of France imminent—Italy officially entered the war on the side of Germany, though he was aware that Italy did not have the military capacity and resources to carry out a long war with the British Empire. Mussolini believed that after the imminent French armistice, Italy could gain territorial concessions from France and then he could concentrate his forces on a major offensive in North Africa, where British and Commonwealth forces were outnumbered by Italian forces.