2 June 2012

Former Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak is sentenced to life imprisonment for his role in the killing of demonstrators during the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

Hosni Mubarak was an influential political figure who served as the President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.

Early Life and Military Career

Birth: Hosni Mubarak was born on May 4, 1928, in Kafr El-Meselha, Monufia Governorate, Egypt.
Military Education: He graduated from the Egyptian Military Academy in 1949 and the Egyptian Air Academy in 1950.
Air Force Career: Mubarak rose through the ranks of the Egyptian Air Force, eventually becoming the Commander of the Air Force in 1972.

Political Career

Vice President: Mubarak was appointed Vice President of Egypt by President Anwar Sadat in 1975.
Presidency: After the assassination of President Sadat in October 1981, Mubarak became President. He was subsequently re-elected through referendums in 1987, 1993, and 1999, and won the first multi-candidate presidential election in 2005.

Policies and Governance

Economic Policies: Mubarak’s economic policies were characterized by a mix of liberalization and state control. His tenure saw some economic growth, but also widespread corruption and inequality.
Foreign Relations: He maintained Egypt’s peace treaty with Israel and was a key ally of the United States in the region. His government played a role in various Middle East peace processes.
Domestic Policies: Mubarak’s rule was marked by a strong security apparatus, limited political freedoms, and human rights abuses. His regime was criticized for its authoritarian nature.

Downfall and Aftermath

2011 Revolution: Mubarak’s long rule came to an end during the Arab Spring in early 2011. Massive protests against his government led to his resignation on February 11, 2011.
Legal Issues: After his resignation, Mubarak faced numerous legal challenges, including charges of corruption and complicity in the deaths of protesters. In 2012, he was sentenced to life imprisonment, but his sentence was later overturned, and he was retried. He spent several years in detention but was eventually released in 2017.
Death: Hosni Mubarak passed away on February 25, 2020, at the age of 91.


Mubarak’s legacy is complex, with some viewing him as a stabilizing force in Egypt and a key player in maintaining regional peace, while others criticize his autocratic rule and the socio-economic issues that persisted under his administration.

12 October 2012

The European Union wins the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize.

The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five original Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, and is awarded annually to individuals, organizations, or movements that have made significant contributions to the promotion of peace. The Nobel Prizes were first awarded in 1901, following Alfred Nobel’s death in 1896.

Categories: The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded in the following categories: Peace and Diplomacy, Human Rights and Advocacy, Disarmament and Conflict Resolution, and other peace-promoting efforts.

Nobel Committee: The Norwegian Nobel Committee is responsible for selecting the Nobel Peace Prize laureates. While the other Nobel Prizes are awarded in Sweden, the Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo, Norway.

Criteria: According to Alfred Nobel’s will, the Peace Prize is to be awarded to the person or entity that has “done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.”

Nomination and Selection: The process for selecting Nobel Peace Prize laureates is highly secretive. Nominations are made by a range of qualified individuals and organizations, including members of national governments, university professors, former laureates, and others. The names of the nominees and other information related to the selection process are kept confidential for 50 years.

Notable Laureates: The Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded to numerous individuals and organizations who have made significant contributions to peace and diplomacy. Some notable laureates include Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., Mother Teresa, Malala Yousafzai, Nelson Mandela, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and many others.

Presentation: The Nobel Peace Prize is typically presented on December 10th, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death. The award ceremony takes place in Oslo, Norway, and includes the presentation of a medal, a diploma, and a substantial monetary award.

Controversies: Like any major award, the Nobel Peace Prize has faced its share of controversies and criticisms. Some laureates have been criticized for their actions after receiving the prize, and there have been debates about omissions and selections.

Legacy: The Nobel Peace Prize has played a significant role in highlighting the work of individuals and organizations committed to peace and human rights. It remains one of the most prestigious international awards

6 August 2012

NASA’s Curiosity rover lands on the surface of Mars.

As of my last knowledge update in September 2021, the Curiosity rover is a robotic spacecraft that was sent to Mars by NASA as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. It’s designed to explore the Martian surface and gather information about the planet’s past and present habitability, as well as to search for evidence of past microbial life.

Launch and Landing: Curiosity was launched on November 26, 2011, and it landed on Mars on August 6, 2012. Its landing site is Gale Crater, which was chosen because it contains a layered mound called Mount Sharp that scientists believe holds a record of past environmental conditions on Mars.

Size and Design: Curiosity is much larger and more capable than previous Mars rovers like Spirit and Opportunity. It’s about the size of a car and weighs roughly 2,000 pounds (900 kilograms). Its size allowed it to carry a wide array of scientific instruments.

Scientific Instruments: Curiosity is equipped with a suite of instruments that allow it to analyze the Martian environment in detail. Some of these instruments include cameras for imaging the surface, a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (ChemCam) for analyzing the composition of rocks and soils, an X-ray diffraction and fluorescence instrument (CheMin) to identify minerals, and a drill to collect rock and soil samples.

Power Source: Unlike solar-powered rovers like Spirit and Opportunity, Curiosity is powered by a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that uses the heat from the natural decay of plutonium-238 to generate electricity.

Mission Objectives: Curiosity’s primary mission objectives are to determine whether Mars has ever had conditions suitable for supporting microbial life, to study the planet’s geology, and to investigate the role of water in shaping the Martian landscape.

Discoveries and Achievements: Curiosity has made numerous important discoveries during its mission, including finding evidence of a potentially habitable environment in the past, detecting organic molecules in Martian rocks, and providing insights into the planet’s atmospheric composition and history.

Longevity: Originally designed for a two-year mission, Curiosity has far exceeded expectations and continues to operate and send back valuable data. As of my last update, the rover was still operational and conducting scientific research on Mars.

19 June 2012

WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange requested asylum in London’s Ecuadorian Embassy for fear of extradition to the US after publication of previously classified documents including footage of civilian killings by the US army.