4 March 1665

English King Charles II declares war on the Netherlands marking the start of the Second Anglo-Dutch War.

The Second Anglo-Dutch War was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic from 1665 to 1667. The war was primarily fought over trade and commerce, as both nations vied for control of the lucrative trade routes and markets in the East Indies and the Americas.

The war began when English warships attacked Dutch trading vessels in the English Channel, and escalated into a full-scale naval and land conflict. The Dutch initially enjoyed some success, with their navy winning several key battles and raiding English coastal towns. However, England soon gained the upper hand, with its navy blockading Dutch ports and capturing Dutch colonies in the Americas.

The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Breda in 1667, which restored the pre-war status quo and returned captured colonies to their original owners. However, both sides suffered significant losses during the conflict, and the Dutch economy was severely impacted by the disruption to its trade routes.

The Second Anglo-Dutch War had important consequences for both England and the Dutch Republic. It marked the beginning of England’s rise as a dominant naval power, while the Dutch began to decline as a maritime power. The war also had a profound impact on the global economy, as it disrupted trade and commerce and led to the emergence of new players in the global marketplace.