27 October 1924

The Uzbek SSR is founded in the Soviet Union.

The Uzbek SSR, or Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union. It existed from 1924 until 1991 when the Soviet Union dissolved. The Uzbek SSR was located in Central Asia, and its capital was Tashkent.

The establishment of the Uzbek SSR was part of the Soviet government’s policy of creating ethnically defined republics within the larger Soviet Union. It was formed as a result of the Soviet reorganization of Central Asia, which included the drawing of new administrative borders and the establishment of republics to represent the various ethnic groups in the region.

During its existence, the Uzbek SSR was under the control of the Soviet government and followed a socialist economic and political system. The economy was largely centralized and focused on agriculture and industry. Uzbekistan was an important cotton-producing region for the Soviet Union.

In 1991, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Uzbek SSR declared independence and became the Republic of Uzbekistan, which continues to exist as an independent country to this day. Since gaining independence, Uzbekistan has undergone significant political, economic, and social changes.

1 April 1924

Adolf Hitler is sentenced to five years imprisonment for his participation in the “Beer Hall Putsch” but spends only nine months in jail. He is released at the end of 1924.

The “Beer Hall Putsch” took place on November 8-9, 1923, in Munich, Germany. Adolf Hitler, who was the leader of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP or Nazi Party), and his supporters attempted to overthrow the Weimar Republic government by launching a coup. During the coup attempt, they tried to seize key locations in Munich, but the coup failed, resulting in several deaths and injuries.

Hitler was arrested on November 11, 1923, and subsequently put on trial. During the trial, Hitler used it as a platform to gain publicity for his nationalist and anti-Semitic views. Despite being found guilty of treason, Hitler received a relatively lenient sentence of five years in prison, along with a fine.

While in prison, Hitler used his time to write his autobiography and political manifesto titled “Mein Kampf” (“My Struggle”). The book later became a central piece of Nazi ideology.

Hitler’s early release from prison was due to political considerations. The Weimar government, facing numerous political challenges and unrest, believed that keeping Hitler in prison could lead to further radicalization of his followers. As a result, Hitler was released on December 20, 1924, after serving only about nine months of his five-year sentence.

After his release, Hitler resumed his political activities and eventually rose to power, becoming the Chancellor of Germany in 1933. His regime led to one of the darkest chapters in human history, with the outbreak of World War II and the Holocaust, resulting in the genocide of millions of people, including six million Jews.

15 April 1924

Rand McNally publishes its first road atlas.

Before there were smart phones and Google Maps, people relied on road atlases and paper maps stored in their glove boxes. The most ubiquitous of these was the always-handy Rand McNally Road Atlas.

It wasn’t until April 15, 1924, though, that the first Rand McNally Auto Chum – later to become the Road Atlas – was published. That auto chum included hand-drawn maps and no interstates, and it came without an index. But it was still a landmark for auto travel, which had previously been relatively ad hoc.

What began as a Chicago printing company in the 1850s quickly moved from producing railroad timetables to publishing railroad guides. As the company — founded by William Rand and Andrew McNally — moved into textbooks and globes, it only made sense for it to eventually print maps of the country’s new road networks as well. In 1904, it published its first automobile road map.

With car travel on the rise, figuring out how to get where you were going became increasingly important. In those early days of driving, Rand McNally actually developed the system of numbering highways that has since been widely adopted. It even posted the roadside signs on many highways. As the oil industry realized how useful maps could be in encouraging people to get out on the open road, Rand McNally began publishing maps for Gulf Oil Company service stations to distribute for free.

If you head out on a road trip today, you’ll probably rely on apps and digital directions. But if you want to explore the unknown out of cell service, don’t forget your road atlas.

9 September 1924

The Hanapepe massacre occurs on Kauai, Hawaii.

The Hanap?p? Massacre also called the Battle of Hanap?p? since both sides were armed happened on September 9, 1924. Toward the end of a long-lasting strike of Filipino sugar workers on Kaua?i, Hawai?i, local police shot dead nine strikers and fatally wounded seven, strikers shot and stabbed three sheriffs to death and fatally wounded one; a total of 20 people died. The massacre brought an end to armed protests in Hawaii.

By the 1920s, the sugarcane plantation owners in Hawai?i had become disillusioned with both Japanese and Filipino workers. They spent the next few years trying to get the U.S. Congress to relax the Chinese Exclusion Act so that they could bring in new Chinese workers. Congress prevented the importation of Chinese labor.

But organized labor in the 1920s’ U.S. mainland supported the Congress in this action, so that for a while it looked as though militant unionism on the sugarcane plantations was dead. To oppose organized labor, the Hawaiian Territorial Legislature passed the Criminal Syndicalism Law of 1919, Anarchistic Publications law of 1921, and the Anti-Picketing Law of 1923.

These laws, with penalties of up to 10 years in prison, increased the discontent of the workers. The Filipinos, who were rapidly becoming the dominant plantation labor force, had deep-seated grievances: as the latest immigrants they were treated most poorly. Although the planters had claimed there was a labor shortage and they were actively recruiting workers from the Philippines, they wanted only illiterate workers and turned back any arrivals who could read or write, as many as one in six.

By 1922 Filipino labor activist Pablo Manlapit had organized a new Filipino Higher Wage Movement which numbered some 13,000 members. In April 1924, it called for a strike on the island of Kaua?i, demanding $2 a day in wages and reduction of the workday to 8 hours. As they had previously, the plantation owners used armed forces, the National Guard, and strike breakers paid a higher wage than the strikers demanded. Again workers were turned out of their homes. Propaganda was distributed to whip up racism. Spying and infiltration of the strikers’ ranks was acknowledged by Jack Butler, executive head of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters’ Association.

Strike leaders were arrested in attempts to disrupt workers’ solidarity, and people were bribed to testify against them. On September 9, 1924, outraged strikers seized two strike breakers at Hanap?p? and prevented them from going to work. The police, armed with clubs and guns, came to union headquarters to rescue them. Filipino strikers were armed only with homemade weapons and knives.

The Associated Press flashed the story of what followed across the United States in the following words: Honolulu. – Twenty persons dead, unnumbered injured lying in hospital, officers under orders to shoot strikers as they approached, distracted widows with children tracking from jails to hospitals and morgues in search of missing strikers – this was the aftermath of a clash between cane strikers and workers on the McBryde plantation, Tuesday at Hanapepe, island of Kauai. The dead included sixteen Filipinos and four policemen.

After the massacre police rounded up all male protesters they could find, and a total of 101 Filipino men were arrested. 76 were brought to trial, and of these 60 received four-year jail sentences. Pablo Manlapit was charged with subornation of perjury and was sentenced to two to ten years in prison. The Hawai?i Hochi claimed that he had been railroaded into prison, a victim of framed-up evidence, perjured testimony, racial prejudice and class hatred. Shortly thereafter, he was paroled on condition that he leave Hawai?i. After eight months the strike disintegrated.

The Federationist, the official publication of the American Federation of Labor, reported that in 1924 the ten leading sugar companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange paid dividends averaging 17 percent. From 1913 to 1923, the eleven leading sugar companies paid cash dividends of 172.45 percent, and most of them issued large stock dividends.

After the 1924 strike, the labor movement in Hawai?i dwindled, but did not die, and discontent among the workers rarely surfaced again. Pablo Manlapit, who had been imprisoned and exiled, returned to the islands in 1932 and started a new labor organization, this time hoping to include other ethnic groups. But the time was not ripe in the Depression years. There were small nuisance strikes in 1933 that made no headway and involved mostly Filipinos. Protests since the massacre have discouraged carrying guns at demonstrations.