18 March 1942

The War Relocation Authority is established in the United States to take Japanese Americans into custody.

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) was a United States government agency established during World War II with the primary purpose of overseeing the forced relocation and internment of Japanese Americans living on the West Coast. This action was carried out following the signing of Executive Order 9066 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942.

Executive Order 9066 authorized the Secretary of War and military commanders to designate certain areas as military zones and to exclude individuals from those areas. As a result, over 120,000 individuals of Japanese descent, the majority of whom were American citizens, were forcibly removed from their homes and placed in internment camps located in remote areas of the country.

The WRA was tasked with managing the relocation process, including the establishment and operation of the internment camps. These camps were often situated in desolate regions with harsh living conditions. Families were forced to leave behind their homes, businesses, and possessions, facing significant economic and psychological hardships.

Although the government cited reasons of national security and military necessity for the internment, many historians and scholars have since criticized it as a grave violation of civil liberties and human rights. In 1988, the United States government formally apologized for the internment and enacted the Civil Liberties Act, which provided reparations and a formal apology to surviving Japanese American internees.

The internment of Japanese Americans during World War II stands as a dark chapter in American history, highlighting the dangers of prejudice, racism, and the erosion of civil liberties during times of conflict and fear.

24 February 1942

The Battle of Los Angeles: A false alarm led to an anti-aircraft barrage that lasted into the early hours of February 25.

The Battle of Los Angeles, also known as the Great Los Angeles Air Raid, was an incident that occurred during World War II in the early hours of February 25, 1942. This event was marked by an intense anti-aircraft barrage over Los Angeles, California, prompted by fears of a Japanese air attack on the West Coast of the United States.

The events unfolded shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, which had put the entire country on high alert. On the night of February 24-25, just a few months after Pearl Harbor, radar operators and air defense units along the coast of California detected an unidentified object or objects approaching from the sea.

In response to the perceived threat, air raid sirens sounded throughout the Los Angeles area, triggering a blackout as part of the city’s defense measures. Anti-aircraft artillery units were immediately mobilized, and the sky over Los Angeles was filled with searchlights and barrages of anti-aircraft fire.

Despite the intense barrage, no enemy aircraft were ever confirmed, and no bombs were dropped on the city. However, the incident caused widespread panic and confusion among the civilian population.

The military initially claimed that Japanese aircraft were responsible for the incident, but this assertion was later retracted, and the object or objects remain unidentified to this day. The official explanation provided by the U.S. military was that the incident was likely caused by a combination of war nerves, stray balloons, and possibly Japanese aircraft that were spotted off the coast but never made it inland.

The Battle of Los Angeles remains a controversial and mysterious event in American history, with various theories and explanations proposed over the years, ranging from weather balloons to extraterrestrial activity. Regardless of the true nature of the incident, it highlighted the fear and tension that gripped the United States during World War II and the vulnerability felt by civilians on the home front.

22 December 1942

Adolf Hitler signs the order to develop the V-2 rocket as a weapon.

The V-2 rocket, also known as the A-4, was the world’s first long-range guided ballistic missile. It was developed by Nazi Germany during World War II and played a significant role in the later stages of the conflict.

Development: The V-2 was developed by a team led by German engineer Wernher von Braun at the Peenemünde Army Research Center. The project began in the 1930s but gained momentum during World War II.

Technology: The V-2 was a revolutionary piece of technology for its time. It was a liquid-fueled rocket that used a combination of liquid oxygen and ethanol. The rocket engine featured a sophisticated guidance system, making it the world’s first long-range guided ballistic missile.

Range and Speed: The V-2 had a range of approximately 200 miles (320 km) and could reach altitudes of over 180 km. It could travel at speeds of more than 5,000 km/h (3,100 mph). This made it extremely difficult to intercept or defend against.

Military use: The V-2 was primarily used as a weapon against Allied cities during the latter part of World War II. The first operational launch occurred in September 1944. Targets included London and Antwerp, among others.

Impact: While the V-2 was technologically advanced, it had a limited military impact due to its high cost, production difficulties, and the late stage of the war in which it became operational. However, it had a significant psychological impact on the civilian population due to its speed and the inability of existing defenses to counter it effectively.

Post-War Developments: After World War II, both the United States and the Soviet Union sought to capture German rocket scientists and engineers, including Wernher von Braun, to work on their own rocket programs. Von Braun, along with many of his colleagues, went on to play a crucial role in the development of rockets during the Cold War, including the development of the Redstone and Saturn rockets in the United States

26 November 1942

Casablanca, the movie starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman, premieres in New York City.

“Casablanca” is a classic American romantic drama film that was released in 1942. It was directed by Michael Curtiz and produced by Hal B. Wallis. The screenplay was written by Julius J. Epstein, Philip G. Epstein, and Howard E. Koch, based on the play “Everybody Comes to Rick’s” by Murray Burnett and Joan Alison.

The film is set during World War II in the city of Casablanca, which is in unoccupied French Morocco. The story revolves around the character Rick Blaine, played by Humphrey Bogart, who owns a popular nightclub and gambling den. His world is turned upside down when his former lover Ilsa Lund, played by Ingrid Bergman, walks into his club with her husband Victor Laszlo, a Czech resistance leader played by Paul Henreid.

The plot is filled with political intrigue, romance, and suspense as Rick is faced with difficult choices and moral dilemmas. The film explores themes of sacrifice, patriotism, and the impact of war on personal relationships. One of the most iconic aspects of the movie is its memorable quotes, such as “Here’s looking at you, kid” and “Of all the gin joints in all the towns in all the world, she walks into mine.”

“Casablanca” is celebrated for its engaging storyline, memorable characters, and the chemistry between its lead actors. It became a critical and commercial success, winning three Academy Awards in 1944, including Best Picture, Best Director for Michael Curtiz, and Best Adapted Screenplay. Over the years, it has gained a reputation as one of the greatest films in the history of cinema and is often cited in discussions about classic Hollywood cinema. The enduring popularity of “Casablanca” has solidified its status as a cinematic masterpiece.

21 September 1942

The Boeing B-29 Superfortress makes its maiden flight.

The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine, long-range, heavy bomber aircraft that played a pivotal role in World War II and the Korean War. It was one of the most advanced and sophisticated bombers of its time, known for its high-altitude capabilities and significant payload capacity.

Development and Design:
The development of the B-29 Superfortress began in the late 1930s, and it was designed to be an improvement over its predecessor, the B-17 Flying Fortress.
It was designed by a team led by Boeing engineer Robert R. Gross and featured several advanced technologies, including pressurized crew compartments, remote-controlled gun turrets, and a centralized fire-control system.

Crew: Typically consisted of 11 to 12 crew members, including the pilot, co-pilot, bombardier, navigator, flight engineer, radio operator, and gunners.
Wingspan: Approximately 141 feet.
Length: About 99 feet.
Maximum Speed: It could reach speeds of up to 365 mph (587 km/h).
Range: The B-29 had a maximum range of around 3,250 miles (5,230 km).
Maximum Bomb Load: It could carry a maximum bomb load of up to 20,000 pounds (9,072 kilograms).
Ceiling: It could operate at altitudes of up to 31,850 feet (9,710 meters).

The B-29’s most notable feature was its pressurized cabin, which allowed the crew to operate at high altitudes where the air was thin, making it difficult for enemy aircraft and anti-aircraft guns to reach them.
It was equipped with remote-controlled gun turrets, making it more efficient and safer for gunners to defend the aircraft.
The Superfortress had a “Central Fire Control” system that coordinated the firing of its machine guns and cannons, improving its defensive capabilities.

Operational History:
The B-29 Superfortress was primarily used by the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II.
It played a significant role in the Pacific theater, conducting long-range bombing missions against Japanese targets, including cities and industrial complexes.
The most famous B-29 missions were the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, which played a key role in Japan’s surrender and the end of World War II.
B-29s were also used during the Korean War, where they conducted strategic bombing missions.

The B-29 Superfortress is considered one of the most iconic aircraft of World War II and played a critical role in shaping the course of the war.
After the war, some B-29s were converted for other roles, such as reconnaissance and weather research.
The aircraft’s design and technology influenced the development of subsequent generations of bombers.

8 August 1942

Quit India Movement is launched in India against the British rule in response to Mohandas Gandhi’s call for swaraj or complete independence.

The Quit India Movement, also known as the August Movement or the Bharat Chodo Andolan, was a significant civil disobedience movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress during India’s struggle for independence from British colonial rule. The movement aimed to bring about a complete withdrawal of British rule from India.

The Quit India Movement was initiated on August 8, 1942, during World War II, when the British were preoccupied with the war effort and India was facing economic hardships and shortages. Gandhi called for immediate “Quit India” – a demand for the British to leave India and grant the country full independence.

Key features and events of the Quit India Movement:

Gandhi’s “Do or Die” Call: In his speech on August 8, 1942, Gandhi famously declared, “Do or Die.” He urged Indians to rise against British oppression and nonviolently resist British rule.

Mass Civil Disobedience: The movement witnessed widespread civil disobedience, strikes, protests, and demonstrations across the country. Indians from all walks of life participated, including students, workers, farmers, and political leaders.

Repression and Arrests: The British colonial government responded with a heavy-handed crackdown. Many prominent leaders, including Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and other members of the Indian National Congress, were arrested and imprisoned.

Underground Activities: Despite the arrests, underground activities continued. Secret meetings, pamphlet distribution, and acts of sabotage against government infrastructure were carried out to maintain the momentum of the movement.

Repressive Measures: The British authorities used various repressive measures to suppress the movement, including curfews, bans on public gatherings, censorship of press, and even use of force.

Impact and Legacy: The Quit India Movement had a significant impact on the Indian freedom struggle. It intensified the demand for complete independence and increased nationalistic fervor. It also showcased the unity and determination of the Indian masses in their fight against colonial rule.

Post-War Scenario: The movement coincided with the end of World War II in 1945. As the war ended, the British government realized that sustaining colonial control was becoming increasingly difficult due to the widespread discontent in India.

Path to Independence: The Quit India Movement, along with other factors such as the INA (Indian National Army) trials and global pressure for decolonization, played a role in pushing the British to consider granting independence to India.

Independence and Partition: India eventually gained independence on August 15, 1947, though the freedom came with the partition of the country into India and Pakistan, leading to significant communal violence and displacement.

The Quit India Movement remains a pivotal moment in India’s struggle for independence, symbolizing the collective resolve of the Indian people to secure their freedom from British colonial rule through nonviolent means.

22 July 1942

Grossaktion Warsaw: The systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw ghetto begins.

Grossaktion Warsaw, also known as the Grossaktion Warschau, was a brutal and devastating operation carried out by Nazi Germany during World War II. The operation took place in the Warsaw Ghetto, which was a segregated area in the city of Warsaw, Poland, where the Nazis confined the Jewish population.

The Warsaw Ghetto was established in November 1940, and it became the largest and most densely populated Jewish ghetto in Nazi-occupied Europe. At its peak, the ghetto held around 400,000 Jews, forced to live in abhorrent conditions, suffering from starvation, disease, and maltreatment.

Grossaktion Warsaw was part of the larger plan known as the “Final Solution,” which aimed to exterminate European Jews. It began in the summer of 1942, as the Nazis intensified their efforts to systematically annihilate the Jewish population in Poland.

In July 1942, the Nazis launched the first wave of deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto to the extermination camp at Treblinka. Thousands of Jews were rounded up, forced to leave their homes, and crammed into freight trains under inhumane conditions. Once they arrived at Treblinka, they were immediately sent to the gas chambers and murdered.

The resistance movement inside the ghetto, particularly the Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa or ZOB), organized acts of resistance against the Nazis during these deportations. They attempted to fight back and disrupt the deportation process, but they were severely outnumbered and outgunned.

Despite their limited resources and the overwhelming might of the Nazi forces, the resistance fighters in the Warsaw Ghetto put up a courageous struggle for several weeks. Their efforts delayed the operation, but ultimately the Nazis prevailed.

Grossaktion Warsaw was executed in several stages, with the final round of deportations occurring in September 1942. By that time, the vast majority of the ghetto’s population had been transported to the extermination camps and murdered. The remaining Jews were either killed on the spot, sent to forced labor camps, or managed to go into hiding.

The horrors of Grossaktion Warsaw and the fate of the Warsaw Ghetto’s inhabitants became a symbol of the Holocaust’s atrocities. It stands as a stark reminder of the genocidal policies pursued by the Nazis during World War II and serves as a testament to the strength and bravery of those who resisted despite facing insurmountable odds.