19 June 1961

Kuwait declares independence from the United Kingdom.

Kuwait’s declaration of independence from the United Kingdom in 1961 marked a significant milestone in the country’s history. Prior to gaining independence, Kuwait had been a British protectorate since 1899, which provided it with a degree of political and military protection.

The push for independence began to gain momentum in the late 1950s when various political groups and leaders in Kuwait started advocating for self-rule. In 1959, the National Union Committee was formed, representing a diverse range of Kuwaiti political parties and interest groups, and it played a crucial role in the independence movement.

The declaration of independence was made on June 19, 1961. Sheikh Abdullah Al-Salem Al-Sabah, the ruler of Kuwait at the time, announced Kuwait’s separation from British rule. This declaration was widely supported by the Kuwaiti people, who had been seeking greater autonomy and control over their own affairs.

The United Kingdom recognized Kuwait’s independence and subsequently withdrew its military forces from the country. Kuwait then transitioned into a fully independent state, with Sheikh Abdullah Al-Salem Al-Sabah becoming Kuwait’s first ruler after independence.

The newfound independence of Kuwait opened the door for the country to further develop its own political, economic, and social systems. Kuwait experienced significant growth and prosperity in the following years, driven primarily by its vast oil reserves.

It’s worth mentioning that Kuwait’s independence was not without challenges. Shortly after declaring independence, Kuwait faced territorial claims from Iraq, which led to a brief military conflict in 1961. However, Kuwait successfully defended its sovereignty, with the support of regional and international allies.

Since gaining independence, Kuwait has emerged as a sovereign nation, playing an active role in regional and global affairs. The country has made notable advancements in various sectors, including finance, commerce, infrastructure, education, and healthcare, making it one of the most developed nations in the Middle East.

19 June 2012

WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange requested asylum in London’s Ecuadorian Embassy for fear of extradition to the US after publication of previously classified documents including footage of civilian killings by the US army.

19 June 1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is approved after surviving an 83-day filibuster in the United States Senate.

[rdp-wiki-embed url=’https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_Rights_Act_of_1964′]

19 June 1913

The Natives Land Act, 1913 in South Africa implemented.

The Natives Land Act of 1913 was the first major piece of segregation legislation passed by the Union Parliament. It was replaced by the current policy of land restitution. The act decreed that whites were not allowed to buy land from natives and vice versa. That stopped white farmers from buying more native land. Exceptions had to be approved by the Governor-General. The native areas left initially totaled less than 10% of the entire land mass of the Union, which was later expanded to 13%.

The Act further prohibited the practice of serfdom or sharecropping. It also protected existing agreements or arrangement of land hired or leased by both parties.

This land was in “native reserve” areas, which meant it was under “communal” tenure vested in African chiefs: it could not be bought, sold or used as surety. Outside such areas, perhaps of even greater significance for black farming was that the Act forbade black tenant farming on white-owned land. Since so many black farmers were sharecroppers or labor tenants, that had a devastating effect, but its full implementation was not immediate. The Act strengthened the chiefs, who were part of the state administration, but it forced many blacks into the “white” areas into wage labour.

19 June 1991

The Soviet occupation of Hungary comes to an end.

On this day (19th June) in 1991, the last Soviet troops were withdrawn from Hungary which had been there for 45 years following World War II. The road to this historic moment was not a smooth one, with 45 years of oppression under their belt. The beginning of this process was kickstarted when Janos Kadar was replaced by Karoly Grosz.

When Miklos Nemeth was appointed Prime Minister in November 1988 a democracy package was soon adopted, introducing freedom of association, assembly and press; new electoral law: and a revision of the constitution by January 1989. Mass demonstrations broke out on 15th March, during which the people called for more reforms, which encouraged the beginning of the Round Table talks on the 22nd April with many different parties.

On the 2nd May 1989, the Iron Curtain (a term used to describe the split between the capitalist west and communist east) began to fall when the 150 mile fence between Hungary and Austria began to be removed. This was symbolically shown by the Austrian and Hungarian foreign ministers cutting a section of the fence on the 27th June.

While this was clearly allowing Hungarians to travel to Austria, it also had an effect on communist Eastern Germany, run by Erich Honicker, a hardliner unwilling to install reforms. With Hungary being a popular holiday destination for East Germans, the opening of the border allowed them to flee west. This was especially noticeable during the three hours that opened the border gate between Sankt Margarethen im Burgenland (Austria) to SopronkOhida (Hungary) for the Pan-European picnic on the 19th August, which saw more than 600 East Germans running west.

The Hungarian borders were finally opened with Eastern Germany on 11 September 1989.