28 June 1919

The Treaty of Versailles is signed, ending the state of war between Germany and the Allies of World War I.

The Treaty of Versailles was a peace treaty that brought World War I to an end. It was signed on June 28, 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which had directly led to the war. The treaty was signed at the Palace of Versailles in France.

Territorial Changes: Germany lost significant territories, including Alsace-Lorraine to France, and significant portions of its eastern territories to the newly formed countries of Poland and Czechoslovakia. The Saar Basin was placed under the administration of the League of Nations, and the city of Danzig (now Gda?sk, Poland) was declared a free city.

Military Restrictions: The treaty imposed severe restrictions on the German military. The German army was limited to 100,000 troops, conscription was banned, and the production of tanks, military aircraft, and submarines was prohibited. The Rhineland was to be demilitarized.

War Guilt Clause: Article 231 of the treaty, commonly known as the “War Guilt Clause,” placed full responsibility for the war on Germany and its allies. This clause was a basis for demanding reparations from Germany.

Reparations: Germany was required to pay reparations for the damage caused during the war. The exact amount was determined later but placed a heavy financial burden on the country.

League of Nations: The treaty established the League of Nations, an international organization aimed at maintaining peace and preventing future conflicts. Germany was initially excluded from the League but was later admitted in 1926.

28 June 1997

Holyfield–Tyson II: Mike Tyson is disqualified in the third round for biting a piece off Evander Holyfield’s ear.

Mike Tyson’s infamous disqualification for biting off a piece of Evander Holyfield’s ear took place on June 28, 1997, during their highly anticipated rematch at the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas. The incident, known as the “Bite Fight,” remains one of the most memorable and controversial moments in boxing history.

The first fight between Tyson and Holyfield had occurred seven months prior, on November 9, 1996, with Holyfield defeating Tyson by TKO in the 11th round to claim the WBA heavyweight title. The rematch was eagerly awaited, and fans were hoping for an intense battle.

However, the fight quickly turned chaotic in the third round. Tyson, frustrated by Holyfield’s tactics and feeling that he was being headbutted, retaliated by biting Holyfield’s ear. Holyfield recoiled in pain, and referee Mills Lane halted the fight to assess the situation.

Upon resuming the fight, Tyson bit Holyfield’s other ear, which prompted Lane to disqualify him and declare Holyfield the winner by disqualification. The crowd erupted in shock and disbelief as chaos ensued inside the ring.

The aftermath of the incident was significant. Tyson faced widespread condemnation and severe consequences for his actions. The Nevada State Athletic Commission suspended him indefinitely, fined him $3 million, and revoked his boxing license, effectively banning him from professional boxing for over a year.

The incident tarnished Tyson’s reputation and exacerbated the controversies surrounding his career. It further solidified Holyfield’s status as a respected fighter who endured an unforgettable ordeal. Despite the shocking nature of the “Bite Fight,” both Tyson and Holyfield eventually reconciled and have since expressed mutual respect and forgiveness.

28 June 1846

Adolphe Sax patents the saxophone.

Antoine-Joseph “Adolphe” Sax 6 November 1814 – 7 February 1894 was a Belgian inventor and musician who invented the saxophone in the early 1840s patented in 28 June 1846. He played the flute and clarinet. He also invented the saxotromba, saxhorn and saxtuba.

Antoine-Joseph Sax was born on 6 November 1814, in Dinant, in what is now Belgium, to Charles-Joseph Sax and his wife. While his given name was Antoine-Joseph, he was referred to as Adolphe from childhood. His father and mother were instrument designers themselves, who made several changes to the design of the French horn. Adolphe began to make his own instruments at an early age, entering two of his flutes and a clarinet into a competition at the age of 15. He subsequently studied performance on those two instruments as well as voice at the Royal Conservatory of Brussels.

28 June 1846

Adolphe Sax get a patent for the saxophone.

saxophone

Emerging from his Paris workshop, musician-inventor Adolphe Sax files 14 patents for an instrument destined to revolutionize American music nearly a century later. His new invention: the saxophone.Initially crafted from wood, Sax’s instruments flared at the tip to form a music-amplifying bell. Designed in seven sizes from sopranino to contrabass, the saxophone combined the easy fingering of large woodwinds with the single-reed mouthpiece of a clarinet.

Although the saxophone quickly became popular with French army bands, the Belgian-born Sax spent decades in court trying to fend off knockoffs and made only meager profits before his patents expired in 1866. Myriad modifications followed, improving ease of play.U.S. production began in 1888 when Charles Gerard Conn of Elkhart, Indiana, started manufacturing the instruments for military bands. By the early 1900s, the saxophone had become a comedy fixture on the vaudeville circuit, where musicians used the instrument to mimic chicken sounds.

Produced eventually in baritone, tenor, alto and soprano models, the saxophone became a creative tool of the first magnitude only in the early 1920s, when New Orleans clarinet player Sidney Bechet grew weary of being drowned out by his bandmate’s much-louder cornet. When the jazz musician switched to soprano saxophone and began projecting a stronger “voice” within the ensemble, other players took note.